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  1. Several studies have confirmed that the gaze velocity of the human eye can be utilized as a behavioral biometric or personalized biomarker. In this study, we leverage the local feature representation capacity of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for eye gaze velocity analysis as the basis for biometric identification of radiologists performing breast cancer screening. Using gaze data collected from 10 radiologists reading 100 mammograms of various diagnoses, we compared the performance of a CNN-based classification algorithm with two deep learning classifiers, deep neural network and deep belief network, and a previously presented hidden Markov model classifier. The study showed thatmore » the CNN classifier is superior compared to alternative classification methods based on macro F1-scores derived from 10-fold cross-validation experiments. Our results further support the efficacy of eye gaze velocity as a biometric identifier of medical imaging experts.« less
  2. Pathology reports are a primary source of information for cancer registries which process high volumes of free-text reports annually. Information extraction and coding is a manual, labor-intensive process. Here in this study we investigated deep learning and a convolutional neural network (CNN), for extracting ICDO- 3 topographic codes from a corpus of breast and lung cancer pathology reports. We performed two experiments, using a CNN and a more conventional term frequency vector approach, to assess the effects of class prevalence and inter-class transfer learning. The experiments were based on a set of 942 pathology reports with human expert annotations asmore » the gold standard. CNN performance was compared against a more conventional term frequency vector space approach. We observed that the deep learning models consistently outperformed the conventional approaches in the class prevalence experiment, resulting in micro and macro-F score increases of up to 0.132 and 0.226 respectively when class labels were well populated. Specifically, the best performing CNN achieved a micro-F score of 0.722 over 12 ICD-O-3 topography codes. Transfer learning provided a consistent but modest performance boost for the deep learning methods but trends were contingent on CNN method and cancer site. Finally, these encouraging results demonstrate the potential of deep learning for automated abstraction of pathology reports.« less
  3. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. Methods: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus data for this study. The fractal dimension of the readers’ visual scanning patternsmore » was computed with the Minkowski–Bouligand box-counting method and used as a measure of gaze complexity. Individual factor and group-based interaction ANOVA analysis was performed to study the association between fractal dimension, case pathology, breast density, and reader experience level. The consistency of the observed trends depending on gaze data representation was also examined. Results: Case pathology, breast density, reader experience level, and individual reader differences are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity when screening for breast cancer. No higher order effects were found to be significant. Conclusions: Fractal characterization of visual search behavior during mammographic screening is dependent on case properties and image reader characteristics.« less

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