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Author ORCID ID is 0000000247525141
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  1. Beryllium is a candidate ablator material for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, motivated by its high mass ablation rate, which is advantageous for implosion coupling efficiency and stabilization of the ablation-front instability growth. In this paper, we present new data on the shock propagation, in-flight shape, and hot spot self-emission shape from gas-filled capsules that demonstrate the feasibility of predictable, symmetric, controllable beryllium implosions at a case-to-capsule ratio of 3.7. The implosions are round (Legendre mode 2 amplitude ≲5%) at an inner beam power and the energy fraction of 26%–28% of the total, indicating that larger beryllium capsules could bemore » driven symmetrically using the National Ignition Facility.« less
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  2. The LANL Shear Campaign uses millimeter-scale initially solid shock tubes on the National Ignition Facility to conduct high-energy-density hydrodynamic plasma experiments, capable of reaching energy densities exceeding 100 kJ/cm 3. These shock-tube experiments have for the first time reproduced spontaneously emergent coherent structures due to shear-based fluid instabilities [i.e., Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH)], demonstrating hydrodynamic scaling over 8 orders of magnitude in time and velocity. The KH vortices, referred to as “rollers,” and the secondary instabilities, referred to as “ribs,” are used to understand the turbulent kinetic energy contained in the system. Their evolution is used to understand the transition to turbulencemore » and that transition's dependence on initial conditions. Experimental results from these studies are well modeled by the RAGE (Radiation Adaptive Grid Eulerian) hydro-code using the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn turbulent mix model. Information inferred from both the experimental data and the mix model allows us to demonstrate that the specific Turbulent Kinetic Energy (sTKE) in the layer, as calculated from the plan-view structure data, is consistent with the mixing width growth and the RAGE simulations of sTKE.« less
  3. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is a common occurrence in nature, notably in astrophysical systems like supernovae, where it serves to mix the dense layers of the interior of an exploding star with the low-density stellar wind surrounding it, and in inertial confinement fusion experiments, where it mixes cooler materials with the central hot spot in an imploding capsule and stifles the desired nuclear reactions. In both of these examples, the radiative flux generated by strong shocks in the system may play a role in partially stabilizing RT instabilities. We present experiments performed on the National Ignition Facility, designed to isolatemore » and study the role of radiation and heat conduction from a shock front in the stabilization of hydrodynamic instabilities. By varying the laser power delivered to a shock-tube target with an embedded, unstable interface, the radiative fluxes generated at the shock front could be controlled. We observe decreased RT growth when the shock significantly heats the medium around it, in contrast to a system where the shock did not produce significant heating. Both systems are modeled with a modified set of buoyancy-drag equations accounting for ablative stabilization, and the experimental results are consistent with ablative stabilization when the shock is radiative. This result has important implications for our understanding of astrophysical radiative shocks and supernova radiative hydrodynamics [Kuranz et al., Nature Communications 9(1), 1564 (2018)].« less
  4. Here, energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh–Taylor instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter, based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae, affect this structure. We observed a reduction in Rayleigh–Taylor growth. In analyzing the comparison with supernova SN1993J, a Type II supernova, we found that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger thanmore » the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling supernova remnants and these dynamics should be noted in the understanding of young supernova remnants.« less
  5. Here, we derive a model describing vorticity deposition on a high-Atwood number interface with a sinusoidal perturbation by an oblique shock propagating from a heavy into a light material. Limiting cases of the model result in vorticity distributions that lead to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability growth. For certain combinations of perturbation amplitude, wavelength, and tilt of the shock, a regime is found in which discrete, co-aligned, vortices are deposited on the interface. The subsequent interface evolution is described by a discrete vortex model, which is found to agree well with both RAGE simulations and experiments at early times.
  6. A new experimental platform has been developed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for studying the Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instabilities in a planar geometry at high-energy-densities. The platform uses 60 beams of the NIF laser to drive an initially solid shock tube containing a pre-machined interface between dense and light materials. The strong shock turns the initially solid target into a plasma and the material boundary into a fluid interface with the imprinted initial condition. The interface evolves by action of the RT and RM instabilities, and the growth is imaged with backlit x-ray radiography. We present ourmore » first data involving sinusoidal interface perturbations driven from the heavy side to the light side. Late-time radiographic images show the initial conditions reaching the deeply nonlinear regime, and an evolution of fine structure consistent with a transition to turbulence. Lastly, we show preliminary comparisons with post-shot numerical simulations and discuss the implications for future campaigns.« less
  7. Direct drive implosions of plastic capsules have been performed at the National Ignition Facility to provide a broad-spectrum (500–2000 eV) X-ray continuum source for X-ray transmission spectroscopy. The source was developed for the high-temperature plasma opacity experimental platform. Initial experiments using 2.0 mm diameter polyalpha-methyl styrene capsules with ~20 μm thickness have been performed. X-ray yields of up to ~1 kJ/sr have been measured using the Dante multichannel diode array. The backlighter source size was measured to be ~100 μm FWHM, with ~350 ps pulse duration during the peak emission stage. Lastly, these results are used to simulate transmission spectramore » for a hypothetical iron opacity sample at 150 eV, enabling the derivation of photometrics requirements for future opacity experiments.« less
  8. Here, we present an experiment using lasers to produce a shock pressure of >10 Mbar, which we then use to drive Richtmyer–Meshkov and Rayleigh–Taylor growth at a 2D multimode perturbed interface. Key features of this platform are that we can precisely reproduce the perturbation from iteration to iteration of the experiment, facilitating analysis, and that the lasers allow us to produce very strong shocks, creating a plasma state in the system. We also implement a Bayesian technique to analyze the multimode spectra. This technique enables us to draw quantitative conclusions about the spectrum, even in the presence of significant noise.more » For instance, we measure the signal contained in the seeded modes over time, as well as the transition of the initial growth rate of these modes into the overall saturation behavior of the spectrum.« less
  9. On laser-driven platforms the assumption of experiment repeatability is particularly important due to a typically low data acquisition rate that doesn’t often allow for data redundancy. If the platform is repeatable, then measurements of the repeatable dynamics from multiple experiments can be treated as measurements of the same system. In high-energy-density hydrodynamic instability experiments the interface growth is assumed to be one of the repeatable aspects of the system. In this paper we demonstrate the repeatability of the instability growth in the counter-propagating shear experiment at the OMEGA laser facility, where the instability growth is characterized by the tracer layermore » thickness or mix-width evolution. Furthermore, in our previous experiment campaigns we have assumed the instability growth was repeatable enough to identify trends, but in this work we explicitly show that the mix-width measurements for nominally identical experiments are repeatable within the measurement error bars.« less

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