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  1. A reactive flow model for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% polymeric binder Kel-F 800) is presented. This newly devised model is based primarily on the shock temperature of the material, along with local pressure, and accurately models a broader range of detonation and initiation scenarios. Specifically, sensitivity changes to the initial explosive temperature are accounted for naturally and with a single set of parameters. The equation of state forms for the reactants and products, as well as the thermodynamic closure of pressure and temperature equilibration, are carried over from the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) modelmore » [Wescott et al., J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005) and “Modeling detonation diffraction and dead zones in PBX-9502,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Detonation Symposium (2006)]. This newly devised model, with Arrhenius state dependence on the shock temperature, based on the WSD equation of states, is denoted by AWSD. In conclusion, modifying an existing implementation of the WSD model to the AWSD model in a hydrocode is a rather straightforward procedure.« less
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  2. Raman spectra and velocimetry of shocked PBX 9502 (plastic bonded explosive composed of 95% triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and 5% 3M Company Kel F-800 polymer binder) are reported with the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio used to determine temperature after the shock reflects from a lithium fluoride window. Final pressures up to 14.5 GPa were tested, but the pressure induced absorption of TATB caused the Raman signal to decrease exponentially with pressure. The reflected shock temperature could be determined to 7 GPa, with an average increase of 14.9 K/GPa. Suggestions to adapt the technique to permit thermometry at higher temperatures are discussed, as are comparisonsmore » to a recently proposed equation of state for PBX 9502.« less
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  3. The response of high explosives (HEs), due to mechanical and/or thermal insults, is of great importance for both safety and performance. A major component of how an HE responds to these stimuli stems from its reactant equation of state (EOS). In this study, the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene based explosive PBX 9502 is investigated by examining recent experiments. Furthermore, a complete thermal EOS is calibrated based on the functional form devised by Wescott, Stewart, and Davis [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005)]. It is found, by comparing to earlier calibrations, that a variety of thermodynamic data are needed to sufficiently constrain the EOSmore » response over a wide range of thermodynamic state space. Included in the calibration presented here is the specific heat as a function of temperature, isobaric thermal expansion, and shock Hugoniot response. As validation of the resulting model, isothermal compression and isentropic compression are compared with recent experiments.« less

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