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Author ORCID ID is 0000000234875089
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  1. It is well known that a binary system of nonactive disks that experience driving in opposite directions exhibits jammed, phase separated, disordered, and laning states. In active matter systems, such as a crowd of pedestrians, driving in opposite directions is common and relevant, especially in conditions which are characterized by high pedestrian density and emergency. In such cases, the transition from laning to disordered states may be associated with the onset of a panic state. In this study, we simulate a laning system containing active disks that obey run-and-tumble dynamics, and we measure the drift mobility and structure as amore » function of run length, disk density, and drift force. The activity of each disk can be quantified based on the correlation timescale of the velocity vector. We find that in some cases, increasing the activity can increase the system mobility by breaking up jammed configurations; however, an activity level that is too high can reduce the mobility by increasing the probability of disk-disk collisions. In the laning state, the increase of activity induces a sharp transition to a disordered strongly fluctuating state with reduced mobility. We identify a novel drive-induced clustered laning state that remains stable even at densities below the activity-induced clustering transition of the undriven system. Lastly, we map out the dynamic phase diagrams highlighting transitions between the different phases as a function of activity, drive, and density.« less
  2. Jamming describes a transition from a flowing or liquid state to a solid or rigid state in a loose assembly of particles such as grains or bubbles. In contrast, clogging describes the ceasing of the flow of particulate matter through a bottleneck. It is not clear how to distinguish jamming from clogging, nor is it known whether they are distinct phenomena or fundamentally the same. Here, we examine an assembly of disks moving through a random obstacle array and identify a transition from clogging to jamming behavior as the disk density increases. The clogging transition has characteristics of an absorbingmore » phase transition, with the disks evolving into a heterogeneous phase-separated clogged state after a critical diverging transient time. In contrast, jamming is a rapid process in which the disks form a homogeneous motionless packing, with a rigidity length scale that diverges as the jamming density is approached.« less
  3. In this paper, we numerically examine the flow and clogging of particles driven through asymmetric funnel arrays when the commensurability ratio of the number of particles per plaquette is varied. The particle-particle interactions are modeled with a soft repulsive potential that could represent vortex flow in type-II superconductors or driven charged colloids. The velocity-force curves for driving in the easy flow direction of the funnels exhibit a single depinning threshold; however, for driving in the hard flow direction, we find that there can be both negative mobility where the velocity decreases with increasing driving force as well as a reentrantmore » pinning effect in which the particles flow at low drives but become pinned at intermediate drives. This reentrant pinning is associated with a transition from smooth one-dimensional flow at low drives to a clogged state at higher drives that occurs when the particles cluster in a small number of plaquettes and block the flow. When the drive is further increased, particle rearrangements occur that cause the clog to break apart. We map out the regimes in which the pinned, flowing, and clogged states appear as a function of plaquette filling and drive. Finally, the clogged states remain robust at finite temperatures but develop intermittent bursts of flow in which a clog temporarily breaks apart but quickly reforms.« less
  4. Using numerical simulations, we examine the dynamics of run-and-tumble disks moving in a disordered array of fixed obstacles. As a function of increasing active disk density and activity, we find a transition from a completely clogged state to a continuous flowing phase, and in the large activity limit, we observe an intermittent state where the motion occurs in avalanches that are power law distributed in size with an exponent ofmore » $$\beta =1.46$$. In contrast, in the thermal or low activity limit we find bursts of motion that are not broadly distributed in size. We argue that in the highly active regime, the system reaches a self-jamming state due to the activity-induced self-clustering, and that the intermittent dynamics is similar to that found in the yielding of amorphous solids. Our results show that activity is another route by which particulate systems can be tuned to a nonequilibrium critical state.« less
  5. We numerically examine clogging transitions for bidisperse disks flowing through a two-dimensional periodic obstacle array. Here, we show that clogging is a probabilistic event that occurs through a transition from a homogeneous flowing state to a heterogeneous or phase-separated jammed state where the disks form dense connected clusters. The probability for clogging to occur during a fixed time increases with increasing particle packing and obstacle number. For driving at different angles with respect to the symmetry direction of the obstacle array, we show that certain directions have a higher clogging susceptibility. It is also possible to have a size-specific cloggingmore » transition in which one disk size becomes completely immobile while the other disk size continues to flow.« less
  6. Depinning and nonequilibrium transitions within sliding states in systems driven over quenched disorder arise across a wide spectrum of size scales ranging from atomic friction at the nanoscale, flux motion in type II superconductors at the mesoscale, colloidal motion in disordered media at the microscale, and plate tectonics at geological length scales. Here we show that active matter or self-propelled particles interacting with quenched disorder under an external drive represents a class of system that can also exhibit pinning-depinning phenomena, plastic flow phases, and nonequilibrium sliding transitions that are correlated with distinct morphologies and velocity-force curve signatures. When interactions withmore » the substrate are strong, a homogeneous pinned liquid phase forms that depins plastically into a uniform disordered phase and then dynamically transitions first into a moving stripe coexisting with a pinned liquid and then into a moving phase-separated state at higher drives. We numerically map the resulting dynamical phase diagrams as a function of external drive, substrate interaction strength, and self-propulsion correlation length. These phases can be observed for active matter moving through random disorder. Lastly, our results indicate that intrinsically nonequilibrium systems can exhibit additional nonequilibrium transitions when subjected to an external drive.« less
  7. In this paper, we show that ac driven skyrmions interacting with an asymmetric substrate provide a realization of a class of ratchet system which we call a vector ratchet that arises due to the effect of the Magnus term on the skyrmion dynamics. In a vector ratchet, the dc motion induced by the ac drive can be described as a vector that can be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the substrate asymmetry direction. Up to a full 360° rotation is possible for varied ac amplitudes or skyrmion densities. In contrast to overdamped systems, in which ratchet motion is alwaysmore » parallel to the substrate asymmetry direction, vector ratchets allow the ratchet motion to be in any direction relative to the substrate asymmetry. It is also possible to obtain a reversal in the direction of rotation of the vector ratchet, permitting the creation of a reversible vector ratchet. We examine vector ratchets for ac drives applied parallel or perpendicular to the substrate asymmetry direction, and show that reverse ratchet motion can be produced by collective effects. No reversals occur for an isolated skyrmion on an asymmetric substrate. Finally, since a vector ratchet can produce motion in any direction, it could represent a method for controlling skyrmion motion for spintronic applications.« less
  8. Here, we examine numerically the transport of an assembly of active run-and-tumble disks interacting with a traveling-wave substrate. We show that as a function of substrate strength, wave speed, disk activity, and disk density, a variety of dynamical phases arise that are correlated with the structure and net flux of disks. We find that there is a sharp transition into a state in which the disks are only partially coupled to the substrate and form a phase-separated cluster state. This transition is associated with a drop in the net disk flux, and it can occur as a function of themore » substrate speed, maximum substrate force, disk run time, and disk density. Since variation of the disk activity parameters produces different disk drift rates for a fixed traveling-wave speed on the substrate, the system we consider could be used as an efficient method for active matter species separation. Within the cluster phase, we find that in some regimes the motion of the cluster center of mass is in the opposite direction to that of the traveling wave, while when the maximum substrate force is increased, the cluster drifts in the direction of the traveling wave. This suggests that swarming or clustering motion can serve as a method by which an active system can collectively move against an external drift.« less
  9. Ratchet effects can arise for single or collectively interacting Brownian particles on an asymmetric substrate when a net dc transport is produced by an externally applied ac driving force or by periodically flashing the substrate. Recently, a new class of active ratchet systems that do not require the application of external driving has been realized through the use of active matter; they are self-propelled units that can be biological or nonbiological in nature. When active materials such as swimming bacteria interact with an asymmetric substrate, a net dc directed motion can arise even without external driving, opening a wealth ofmore » possibilities such as sorting, cargo transport, or micromachine construction. We review the current status of active matter ratchets for swimming bacteria, cells, active colloids, and swarming models, focusing on the role of particle-substrate interactions. Here, we describe ratchet reversals produced by collective effects and the use of active ratchets to transport passive particles. We discuss future directions including deformable substrates or particles, the role of different swimming modes, varied particle–particle interactions, and nondissipative effects.« less
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  10. In using numerical simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of particles interacting via competing long-range repulsion and short-range attraction in two dimensions. The particles are compressed using a time-dependent quasi-one dimensional trough potential that controls the local density, causing the system to undergo a series of structural phase transitions from a low density clump lattice to stripes, voids, and a high density uniform state. The compression proceeds via slow elastic motion that is interrupted with avalanche-like bursts of activity as the system collapses to progressively higher densities via plastic rearrangements. The plastic events vary in magnitude from small rearrangements ofmore » particles, including the formation of quadrupole-like defects, to large-scale vorticity and structural phase transitions. In the dense uniform phase, the system compresses through row reduction transitions mediated by a disorder-order process. We also characterize the rearrangement events by measuring changes in the potential energy, the fraction of sixfold coordinated particles, the local density, and the velocity distribution. At high confinements, we find power law scaling of the velocity distribution during row reduction transitions. We observe hysteresis under a reversal of the compression when relatively few plastic rearrangements occur. The decompressing system exhibits distinct phase morphologies, and the phase transitions occur at lower compression forces as the system expands compared to when it is compressed.« less

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