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  1. Beryllium is a candidate ablator material for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, motivated by its high mass ablation rate, which is advantageous for implosion coupling efficiency and stabilization of the ablation-front instability growth. In this paper, we present new data on the shock propagation, in-flight shape, and hot spot self-emission shape from gas-filled capsules that demonstrate the feasibility of predictable, symmetric, controllable beryllium implosions at a case-to-capsule ratio of 3.7. The implosions are round (Legendre mode 2 amplitude ≲5%) at an inner beam power and the energy fraction of 26%–28% of the total, indicating that larger beryllium capsules could bemore » driven symmetrically using the National Ignition Facility.« less
    Cited by 2
  2. In this paper, we describe the use of a robust new 1-D like implosion platform at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] to study the effect of convergence on mix and shape. Previous experiments suggest that nuclear yields and ion temperature degrade with increased convergence [M. D. Cable et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2316 (1994)] due to enhanced perturbation growth and mix, but little has been reported on the distortion of the shape with time. The 2-shock platform was developed [S. F. Khan et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 042708 (2016)] tomore » maintain a high degree of sphericity during the whole implosion phase and has a thick, uniformly doped (1% Si) plastic CH shell to minimize the effect of mixing due to hydrodynamic feed-through from the outer ablator surface. An inner layer of deuterated plastic (CD) and hydrogen-tritium (DT) gas fill allows for the measurement of DT neutrons produced by the mix between the gas and ablator. DD neutrons provide information about the hot, unmixed CD region. By changing the fill gas density while keeping the capsule diameter, ablator thickness, and Au hohlraum conditions fixed, the x-ray hot spot convergence ratio was varied from 14 to 22. We find that the atomic mix (DT yield) grows linearly as a function of convergence, but since T ion changes as well, it does not necessarily mean that the amount or extent of mix grows linearly as well. Lastly, we also find the DD yield, which is a measurement of the shell heating, saturates above a certain convergence.« less
  3. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) show that the implosion shape of inertial confinement fusion ablators is a key factor limiting performance. To achieve more predictable, shape tunable implosions, we have designed and fielded a large 4.2 case-to-capsule ratio target at the NIF using 6.72 mm diameter Au hohlraums and 1.6 mm diameter Cu-doped Be capsules. Simulations show that at these dimensions during a 10 ns 3-shock laser pulse reaching 275 eV hohlraum temperatures, the plasma flow from the hohlraum wall and ablator is not significant enough to impede beam propagation. Experiments measuring the shock symmetry and in-flight shellmore » symmetry closely matched the simulations. Most notably, in two experiments, we demonstrated symmetry control from negative to positive Legendre P2 space by varying the inner to total laser power cone fraction by 5% below and above the predicted symmetric value. In conclusion, some discrepancies found in 1st shock arrival times that could affect agreement in late time implosion symmetry suggest hohlraum and capsule modeling uncertainties do remain, but this target design reduces sensitivities to them.« less
    Cited by 1
  4. This paper discusses the modeling of experiments that measure iron opacity in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) using laser-driven hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A previous set of experiments fielded at Sandia's Z facility [Bailey et al., Nature 517, 56 (2015)] have shown up to factors of two discrepancies between the theory and experiment, casting doubt on the validity of the opacity models. The purpose of the new experiments is to make corroborating measurements at the same densities and temperatures, with the initial measurements made at a temperature of 160 eV and an electron density of 0.7 × 10more » 22 cm -3. The X-ray hot spots of a laser-driven hohlraum are not in LTE, and the iron must be shielded from a direct line-of-sight to obtain the data [Perry et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 5617 (1996)]. This shielding is provided either with the internal structure (e.g., baffles) or external wall shapes that divide the hohlraum into a laser-heated portion and an LTE portion. In contrast, most inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are simple cylinders lacking complex gold walls, and the design codes are not typically applied to targets like those for the opacity experiments. We will discuss the initial basis for the modeling using LASNEX, and the subsequent modeling of five different hohlraum geometries that have been fielded on the NIF to date. This includes a comparison of calculated and measured radiation temperatures.« less
  5. The LANL Shear Campaign uses millimeter-scale initially solid shock tubes on the National Ignition Facility to conduct high-energy-density hydrodynamic plasma experiments, capable of reaching energy densities exceeding 100 kJ/cm 3. These shock-tube experiments have for the first time reproduced spontaneously emergent coherent structures due to shear-based fluid instabilities [i.e., Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH)], demonstrating hydrodynamic scaling over 8 orders of magnitude in time and velocity. The KH vortices, referred to as “rollers,” and the secondary instabilities, referred to as “ribs,” are used to understand the turbulent kinetic energy contained in the system. Their evolution is used to understand the transition to turbulencemore » and that transition's dependence on initial conditions. Experimental results from these studies are well modeled by the RAGE (Radiation Adaptive Grid Eulerian) hydro-code using the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn turbulent mix model. Information inferred from both the experimental data and the mix model allows us to demonstrate that the specific Turbulent Kinetic Energy (sTKE) in the layer, as calculated from the plan-view structure data, is consistent with the mixing width growth and the RAGE simulations of sTKE.« less
  6. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is a common occurrence in nature, notably in astrophysical systems like supernovae, where it serves to mix the dense layers of the interior of an exploding star with the low-density stellar wind surrounding it, and in inertial confinement fusion experiments, where it mixes cooler materials with the central hot spot in an imploding capsule and stifles the desired nuclear reactions. In both of these examples, the radiative flux generated by strong shocks in the system may play a role in partially stabilizing RT instabilities. We present experiments performed on the National Ignition Facility, designed to isolatemore » and study the role of radiation and heat conduction from a shock front in the stabilization of hydrodynamic instabilities. By varying the laser power delivered to a shock-tube target with an embedded, unstable interface, the radiative fluxes generated at the shock front could be controlled. We observe decreased RT growth when the shock significantly heats the medium around it, in contrast to a system where the shock did not produce significant heating. Both systems are modeled with a modified set of buoyancy-drag equations accounting for ablative stabilization, and the experimental results are consistent with ablative stabilization when the shock is radiative. This result has important implications for our understanding of astrophysical radiative shocks and supernova radiative hydrodynamics [Kuranz et al., Nature Communications 9(1), 1564 (2018)].« less
  7. Here, energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh–Taylor instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter, based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae, affect this structure. We observed a reduction in Rayleigh–Taylor growth. In analyzing the comparison with supernova SN1993J, a Type II supernova, we found that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger thanmore » the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling supernova remnants and these dynamics should be noted in the understanding of young supernova remnants.« less
  8. Here, we derive a model describing vorticity deposition on a high-Atwood number interface with a sinusoidal perturbation by an oblique shock propagating from a heavy into a light material. Limiting cases of the model result in vorticity distributions that lead to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability growth. For certain combinations of perturbation amplitude, wavelength, and tilt of the shock, a regime is found in which discrete, co-aligned, vortices are deposited on the interface. The subsequent interface evolution is described by a discrete vortex model, which is found to agree well with both RAGE simulations and experiments at early times.
  9. Targets have been developed to measure supersonic radiation transport in aerogel foams using absorption spectroscopy. The target consists of an aerogel foam uniformly doped with either titanium or scandium inserted into an undoped aerogel foam package. This creates a localized doped foam region to provide spatial resolution for the measurement. Development and characterization of the foams is a key challenge in addition to machining and assembling the two foams so they mate without gaps. The foam package is inserted into a beryllium sleeve and mounted on a gold hohlraum. The target is mounted to a holder created using additive manufacturingmore » and mounted on a stalk. As a result, the manufacturing of the components, along with assembly and metrology of the target are described here.« less

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