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Author ORCID ID is 0000000200940209
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  1. Main-ion charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (MICER) uses the neutral beam induced D α spectrum to measure the local deuterium ion ( D +) temperature, rotation, and density, as well as parameters related to the neutral beams, fast ions, and magnetic field. An edge MICER system consisting of 16 densely packed chords was recently installed on DIII-D, extending the MICER technique from the core to the pedestal and steep gradient region of H-mode plasmas where the D + and commonly measured impurity ion properties can differ significantly. A combination of iterative collisional radiative modeling techniques and greatly accelerated spectral fitting allowedmore » the extension of this diagnostic technique to the plasma edge where the steep gradients introduce significant diagnostic challenges. The importance of including the fast ion Dα emission in the fit to the spectrum for the edge system is investigated showing that it is typically not important except for cases which can have significant fast ion fractions near the plasma edge such as QH-mode. Example profiles from an Ohmic L-mode and a high power ITER baseline case show large differences in the toroidal rotation of the two species near the separatrix including a strong co-current D + edge rotation. As a result, the measurements and analysis demonstrate the state of the art in active spectroscopy and integrated modeling for diagnosing fusion plasmas and the importance of direct main ion measurements.« less
  2. Detailed measurements of the main ion (D +) and impurity ion (C 6+) evolution during the development of the H-mode pedestal across an L-H transition show significant differences in toroidal rotation, density, and temperature profiles in the pedestal region on DIII-D. While both species experience a slow toroidal spin up at constant input neutral beam injected torque, the C 6+ toroidal rotation develops a non-monotonic notch feature and lower toroidal rotation near the plasma edge immediately following the L-H transition. This feature is not present in the main ion rotation that instead, depending on plasma parameters, can show a flatmore » or peaked rotation near the separatrix. The D + and C 6+ temperature profiles show a similar evolution; however, the D + temperature is lower than the C 6+ temperature at the separatrix in both L and H mode which may be due to cooling of D + via charge exchange with cold edge deuterium neutrals. Local neoclassical predictions of the main ion toroidal rotation based on the impurity properties show good agreement with direct measurements at the pedestal top for a lower power, higher collisionality case but can diverge significantly in the steep gradient region for the two shots studied here. Furthermore, these observations highlight the importance of directly measuring the properties of the main ion species at the plasma edge.« less
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  3. Resonant magnetic perturbations (n=3 RMPs) are used to eliminate large amplitude ELMs and reduce the amplitude of weaker "grassy"-ELMs in DIII-D plasmas relevant to the ITER steady-state mission. Fully non-inductive discharges in the ITER shape and pedestal collisionality (n*e ≈ 0.05-0.15) are routinely achieved in DIII-D with RMP suppression of Type-I ELMs. The residual grassy-ELMs deliver a low peak heat flux to the divertor, within 50% of the inter-ELM heat flux, in plasmas with sustained high H-factor (H98y2≈1.2). These grassy-ELM plasmas have a pedestal width that is typically 10% of the poloidal minor radius and ≈50% wider than EPED modelmore » predictions. The operating window for RMP grassy-ELMs in edge magnetic safety factor and external torque is in the range required for a steady-state tokamak reactor, such as q95 between 5.3 and 7.1, and co-Ip neutral beam torque down to 0.7 Nm. Small amplitude RMPs (dBvac/B≈1.5x10-4) are sufficient to access this regime, consistent with the large amplification of the vacuum field by the plasma, typically 3-4x the amplification produced by ITER baseline plasmas due to the high pedestal pressure. Cyclic pulsations are observed in the pedestal and plasma magnetic response, consistent with theoretically predicted limit cycle behavior of magnetic island penetration and screening. The grassy ELMs are strongly modulated and sometimes fully suppressed during these pedestal pulsations, consistent with the stabilizing effect of resonant field penetration on peeling-ballooning mode stability. The use of low amplitude edge-resonant magnetic perturbations to access enhanced grassy-ELM operation in a naturally wide pedestal plasma with weak confinement degradation opens the possibility for further optimization of the steady-state tokamak by improved coupling between external fields and weakly stable modes of the plasma.« less
  4. Here, a non-dimensional collisionality scan conducted on DIII-D confirms a model for ELM energy densities recently put forward by Eich [1], but also reveals key effects that may explain the large scatter typically observed about the scaling. Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) close to the plasma edge was used to raise electron temperatures at the pedestal top and lower collisionality to ITER level, while the power of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) was decreased during discharges to operate closer to the L-H transition threshold. The scan reveals no explicit pedestal pressure dependence of the ELM energy densities. While collisionality does not playmore » a decisive role, the ratio of heating power to the power over the L-H-threshold is identified as parameter determining the agreement with the model, with discharges marginally above the threshold showing the largest scatter in the database and exceeding the predicted ELM energy up to twofold. Operation close to the L-H-threshold is accompanied by low ELM frequency and large 2 ELM heat loads. Using linear stability calculations, ELM energy densities are shown to be inversely proportional to the most unstable linear mode number before the ELM crash. There are indications that the scatter in the data when compared with the Eich model prediction is caused by including only a limited set out of all quantities in the model that are considered by linear stability analysis. While further ELM studies near the LH threshold are of great priority, the overall agreement of DIII-D with the Eich model recommends its use in extrapolations towards ITER.« less
  5. Analysis of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) data on National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) shows that the cold Dα line contaminates the FIDA baseline. The scattered light is comparable to the FIDA emission. A scattering correction is required to extract the FIDA signal. Two methods that relate the scattered light contamination to the intensity of the cold Dα line are employed. Here, one method uses laboratory measurements with a calibration lamp; the other method uses data acquired during plasma operation and singular value decomposition analysis. Finally, after correction, both the FIDA spectra and spatial profile are in better agreement with theoretical predictions.
  6. On National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, the passive fast-ion D-alpha (passive-FIDA) spectra from charge exchange (CX) between the beam ions and the background neutrals are measured and simulated. The results indicate that the passive-FIDA signal is measurable and comparable to the active-FIDA on several channels, such as at the major radius R = 117 cm. For this, active-FIDA means the active D-alpha emission from the fast ions that CX with the injected neutrals. The shapes of measured spectra are in agreement with FIDASIM simulations on many fibers. Furthermore, the passive-FIDA spatial profile agrees with the simulation. When making measurements ofmore » active-FIDA in the edge region using time-slice subtraction, variations in the passive-FIDA contribution to the signal should be considered.« less
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  7. Experiments have been conducted on DIII-D investigating high repetition rate injection of non-fuel pellets as a tool for pacing Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and mitigating their transient divertor heat loads. Effective ELM pacing was obtained with injection of Li granules in different H-mode scenarios, at frequencies 3–5 times larger than the natural ELM frequency, with subsequent reduction of strike-point heat flux. However, in scenarios with high pedestal density (~6 × 10 19 m –3), the magnitude of granule triggered ELMs shows a broad distribution, in terms of stored energy loss and peak heat flux, challenging the effectiveness of ELM mitigation.more » Furthermore, transient heat-flux deposition correlated with granule injections was observed far from the strike-points. As a result, field line tracing suggest this phenomenon to be consistent with particle loss into the mid-plane far scrape-off layer, at toroidal location of the granule injection.« less
  8. Observations on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) indicate that externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) can reduce the amplitude of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE) in response to pulsed n=3 non-resonant fields. From full-orbit following Monte Carlo simulations with the 1- and 2-fluid resistive MHD plasma response to the magnetic perturbation included, it was found that in response to MP pulses the fast-ion losses increased and the fast-ion drive for the GAEs was reduced. The MP did not affect the fast-ion drive for the TAEs significantly but the Alfven continuum at the plasma edge wasmore » found to be altered due to the toroidal symmetry breaking which leads to coupling of different toroidal harmonics. The TAE gap was reduced at the edge creating enhanced continuum damping of the global TAEs, which is consistent with the observations. Furthermore, the results suggest that optimized non-axisymmetric MP might be exploited to control and mitigate Alfven instabilities by tailoring the fast-ion distribution function and/or continuum structure.« less
  9. At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 to 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/s, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. We used the durationmore » of ablation as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. In conclusion, this calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation.« less

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