Using molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the density fluctuations and cavity formation probabilities in aqueous solutions and their effect on the hydration of CO 2. With increasing salt concentration, we report an increased probability of observing a larger than the average number of species in the probe volume. Our energetic analyses indicate that the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between CO 2 and aqueous solutions become more favorable with increasing salt concentration, favoring the solubility of CO 2 (salting in). However, due to the decreasing number of cavities forming when salt concentration is increased, the solubility of CO 2more »
Redox Transformations of As and Se at the Surfaces of Natural and Synthetic Ferric Nontronites: Role of Structural and Adsorbed Fe(II)Adsorption and redox transformations on clay mineral surfaces are prevalent in surface environments. We examined the redox reactivity of iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) associated with natural and synthetic ferric nontronites. Specifically, we assessed how Fe(II) residing in the octahedral sheets, or Fe(II) adsorbed at the edge sites alters redox activity of nontronites. To probe the redox activity we used arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). Activation of both synthetic and natural ferric nontronites was. observed following the introduction of Fe(II) into predominantly-Fe(III) octahedral sheets or through the adsorption of Fe(II) onto the mineral surface. The oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was observed viamore »
Heterogeneous redox reactions on clay mineral surfaces control mobility and bioavailability of redox-sensitive nutrients and contaminants. Iron (Fe) residing in clay mineral structures can either catalyze or directly participate in redox reactions; but, chemical controls over its reactivity are not fully understood. In our previous work we demonstrated that converting a minor portion of Fe(III) to Fe(II) (partial reduction) in the octahedral sheet of natural Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite (NAu-1) activates its surface, making it redox-active. In this study we produced and characterized synthetic ferric nontronite (SIP), highlighting structural and chemical similarities and differences between this synthetic nontronite and itsmore »
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