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  1. Monitoring is a crucial aspect of geologic carbon dioxide (CO 2) sequestration risk management. Effective monitoring is critical to ensure CO 2 is safely and permanently stored throughout the life-cycle of a geologic CO 2 sequestration project. Effective monitoring involves deciding: (i) where is the optimal location to place the monitoring well(s), and (ii) what type of data (pressure, temperature, CO 2 saturation, etc.) should be measured taking into consideration the uncertainties at geologic sequestration sites. We have developed a filtering-based data assimilation procedure to design effective monitoring approaches. To reduce the computational cost of the filtering-based data assimilation process,more » a machine-learning algorithm: Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines is used to derive computationally effcient reduced order models from results of full-physics numerical simulations of CO 2 injection in saline aquifer and subsequent multi-phase fluid flow. We use example scenarios of CO 2 leakage through legacy wellbore and demonstrate a monitoring strategy can be selected with the aim of reducing uncertainty in metrics related to CO 2 leakage. We demonstrate the proposed framework with two synthetic examples: a simple validation case and a more complicated case including multiple monitoring wells. The examples demonstrate that the proposed approach can be effective in developing monitoring approaches that take into consideration uncertainties.« less

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