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  1. Many spectral responses in materials science, physics, and chemistry experiments can be characterized as resulting from the superposition of a number of more basic individual spectra. In this context, unmixing is defined as the problem of determining the individual spectra, given measurements of multiple spectra that are spatially resolved across samples, as well as the determination of the corresponding abundance maps indicating the local weighting of each individual spectrum. Matrix factorization is a popular linear unmixing technique that considers that the mixture model between the individual spectra and the spatial maps is linear. Here, we present a tutorial paper targetedmore » at domain scientists to introduce linear unmixing techniques, to facilitate greater understanding of spectroscopic imaging data. We detail a matrix factorization framework that can incorporate different domain information through various parameters of the matrix factorization method. We demonstrate many domain-specific examples to explain the expressivity of the matrix factorization framework and show how the appropriate use of domain-specific constraints such as non-negativity and sum-to-one abundance result in physically meaningful spectral decompositions that are more readily interpretable. Our aim is not only to explain the off-the-shelf available tools, but to add additional constraints when ready-made algorithms are unavailable for the task. All examples use the scalable open source implementation from https://github.com/ramkikannan/nmflibrary that can run from small laptops to supercomputers, creating a user-wide platform for rapid dissemination and adoption across scientific disciplines.« less
  2. Ferroelectric domain walls have continued to attract widespread attention due to both the novelty of the phenomena observed and the ability to reliably pattern them in nanoscale dimensions. But, the conductivity mechanisms remain in debate, particularly around nominally uncharged walls. Here, we posit a conduction mechanism relying on field-modification effect from polarization re-orientation and the structure of the reverse-domain nucleus. Through conductive atomic force microscopy measurements on an ultra-thin (001) BiFeO 3 thin film, in combination with phase-field simulations, we show that the field-induced twisted domain nucleus formed at domain walls results in local-field enhancement around the region of themore » atomic force microscope tip. In conjunction with slight barrier lowering, these two effects are sufficient to explain the observed emission current distribution. Our results suggest that different electronic properties at domain walls are not necessary to observe localized enhancement in domain wall currents.« less
  3. We report the recent discovery of twin domains in MAPbI 3 perovskites has initiated contentious discussion on the ferroic nature of hybrid perovskites. Ferroelectric polarization is thought to facilitate the dissociation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, helping to explain the extraordinary photovoltaic performance exhibited by this class of materials. Alternate to ferroelectricity, which has yet to be unambiguously established despite considerable efforts to do so, ferroelasticity was also proposed in these materials. Meanwhile, given the coupling of ionic states and ferroelectricity and the interconnected nature of defect chemistry and ferroelasticity, the electrochemical reactivity can no longer be ignored. In this work,more » using band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy, we reveal the variation in elasticity between adjacent domains, indicating the ferroelasticity and the difference in the crystallographic states of the twin domain. Moreover, using band excitation contact Kelvin probe force microscopy, we dynamically map the evolution of the twinning structure under electric bias. These results help decipher the effect of the twin domains on ionic mobility and ion diffusion pathways. Combining these results, we reveal the interaction of twin domains and ionic activity in this material. Furthermore, this work provides insights into the twinning structure in MAPbI 3 and its potential effects on the hybrid perovskite optoelectronics.« less
  4. Organometallic halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted broad attention as prospective materials for optoelectronic applications. Among the many anomalous properties of these materials, of special interest are the ferroelectric properties including both classical and relaxor-like components, as a potential origin of slow dynamics, field enhancement, and anomalous mobilities. Here, ferroelectric properties of the three representative OMHPs are explored, including FAPb xSn 1–xI 3 (x = 0, x = 0.85) and FA 0.85MA 0.15PbI 3 using band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy and contact mode Kelvin probe force microscopy, providing insight into long- and short-range dipole and charge dynamics in these materials andmore » probing ferroelectric density of states. Furthermore, second-harmonic generation in thin films of OMHPs is observed, providing a direct information on the noncentrosymmetric polarization in such materials. Overall, the data provide strong evidence for the presence of ferroelectric domains in these systems; however, the domain dynamics is suppressed by fast ion dynamics. These materials hence present the limit of ferroelectric materials with spontaneous polarization dynamically screened by ionic and electronic carriers.« less
    Cited by 2
  5. Many energy conversion, sensing, and microelectronic applications based on ferroic materials are determined by the domain structure evolution under applied stimuli. New hyperspectral, multidimensional spectroscopic techniques now probe dynamic responses at relevant length and time scales to provide an understanding of how these nanoscale domain structures impact macroscopic properties. Such approaches, however, remain limited in use because of the difficulties that exist in extracting and visualizing scientific insights from these complex datasets. Using multidimensional band-excitation scanning probe spectroscopy and adapting tools from both computer vision and machine learning, an automated workflow is developed to featurize, detect, and classify signatures ofmore » ferroelectric/ferroelastic switching processes in complex ferroelectric domain structures. This approach enables the identification and nanoscale visualization of varied modes of response and a pathway to statistically meaningful quantification of the differences between those modes. Lastly, among other things, the importance of domain geometry is spatially visualized for enhancing nanoscale electromechanical energy conversion.« less
  6. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) is one of the most powerful characterization tools allowing imaging of the chemical properties of various systems and materials. It allows precise studies of the chemical composition with sub-100-nm lateral and nanometer depth spatial resolution. However, comprehensive interpretation of ToF SIMS results is challengeable, because of the data volume and its multidimensionality. Furthermore, investigation of the samples with pronounced topographical features are complicated by the spectral shift. In this work we developed approach for the comprehensive ToF SIMS data interpretation based on the data analytics and automated extraction of the samplemore » topography based on time of flight shift. We further applied this approach to investigate correlation between biological function and chemical composition in Arabidopsis roots.« less
  7. Here, ferroelectric materials have remained one of the major focal points of condensed matter physics and materials science for over 50 years. In the last 20 years, the development of voltage-modulated scanning probe microscopy techniques, exemplified by Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and associated time- and voltage spectroscopies, opened a pathway to explore these materials on a single-digit nanometer level. Consequently, domain structures and walls and polarization dynamics can now be imaged in real space. More generally, PFM has allowed studying electromechanical coupling in a broad variety of materials ranging from ionics to biological systems.
    Cited by 24Full Text Available
  8. Exploration of phase transitions and construction of associated phase diagrams are of fundamental importance for condensed matter physics and materials science alike, and remain the focus of extensive research for both theoretical and experimental studies. For the latter, comprehensive studies involving scattering, thermodynamics, and modeling are typically required. We present a new approach to data mining multiple realizations of collective dynamics, measured through piezoelectric relaxation studies, to identify the onset of a structural phase transition in nanometer-scale volumes, that is, the probed volume of an atomic force microscope tip. Machine learning is used to analyze the multidimensional data sets describingmore » relaxation to voltage and thermal stimuli, producing the temperature-bias phase diagram for a relaxor crystal without the need to measure (or know) the order parameter. The suitability of the approach to determine the phase diagram is shown with simulations based on a two-dimensional Ising model. Finally, these results indicate that machine learning approaches can be used to determine phase transitions in ferroelectrics, providing a general, statistically significant, and robust approach toward determining the presence of critical regimes and phase boundaries.« less
  9. Ferroelectricity on the nanoscale has been the subject of much fascination in condensed-matter physics for over half a century. In recent years, multiple reports claiming ferroelectricity in ultrathin ferroelectric films based on the formation of remnant polarization states, local electromechanical hysteresis loops, and pressure-induced switching were made. But, similar phenomena were reported for traditionally non-ferroelectric materials, creating a significant level of uncertainty in the field. We show that in nanoscale systems the ferroelectric state is fundamentally inseparable from the electrochemical state of the surface, leading to the emergence of a mixed electrochemical–ferroelectric state. We explore the nature, thermodynamics, and thicknessmore » evolution of such states, and demonstrate the experimental pathway to establish its presence. Our analysis reconciles multiple prior studies, provides guidelines for studies of ferroelectric materials on the nanoscale, and establishes the design paradigm for new generations of ferroelectric-based devices.« less

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