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Author ORCID ID is 0000000152243969
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  1. Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are prominent candidate biocatalysts that, together, can enable the direct biotic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. The imbalance and suboptimal turnover rates of redox cofactors are currently hindering engineering efforts to achieve higher bioproductivity in both organisms. Measuring relevant intracellular cofactor concentrations will help understand redox state of these cofactors and help identify a strategy to overcome these limitations; however, metabolomic determinations of these labile metabolites have historically proved challenging.Results: Through our validations, we verified the handling and storage stability of these metabolites, and verified extraction matrices and extraction solvent were not suppressing massmore » spectrometry signals. We recovered adenylate energy charge ratios (a main quality indicator) above 0.82 for all extractions. NADH/NAD+ values of 0.26 and 0.04 for an adhE-deficient strain of C. thermocellum and its parent, respectively, reflect the expected shift to a more reduced redox potential when a species lacks the ability to re-oxidize NADH by synthesizing ethanol. This method failed to yield reliable results with C. bescii and poor-growing strains of T. saccharolyticum. Lastly, our validated protocols demonstrate and validate the extraction and analysis of selected redox and energy-related metabolites from two candidate consolidated bioprocessing biocatalysts, C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. This development and validation highlights the important, but often neglected, need to optimize and validate metabolomic protocols when adapting them to new cell or tissue types.« less
  2. Here, the immediate drop on demand technology to a mass spectrometer via the recently introduced open port sampling interface and ESI. A maximum sample analysis throughput of 5 s per sample was demonstrated. Signal reproducibility was 10% or better as demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of propranolol and its stable isotope-labeled internal standard propranolol-d7. The ability of the system to multiply charge and analyze macromolecules was demonstrated using the protein cytochrome c. In conclusion, this immediate drop on demand technology/open port sampling interface/ESI–MS combination allowed for the quantitative analysis of relatively small mass analytes and was used for the identificationmore » of macromolecules like proteins.« less
  3. An “Open Access”-like mass spectrometric platform to fully utilize the simplicity of the manual open port sampling interface for rapid characterization of unprocessed samples by liquid introduction atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry has been lacking. The in-house developed integrated software with a simple, small and relatively low-cost mass spectrometry system introduced here fills this void. Software was developed to operate the mass spectrometer, to collect and process mass spectrometric data files, to build a database and to classify samples using such a database. These tasks were accomplished via the vendorprovided software libraries. Sample classification based on spectral comparison utilized themore » spectral contrast angle method. As a result, using the developed software platform near real-time sample classification is exemplified using a series of commercially available blue ink rollerball pens and vegetable oils. In the case of the inks, full scan positive and negative ion ESI mass spectra were both used for database generation and sample classification. For the vegetable oils, full scan positive ion mode APCI mass spectra were recorded. The overall accuracy of the employed spectral contrast angle statistical model was 95.3% and 98% in case of the inks and oils, respectively, using leave-one-out cross-validation. In conclusion, this work illustrates that an open port sampling interface/mass spectrometer combination, with appropriate instrument control and data processing software, is a viable direct liquid extraction sampling and analysis system suitable for the non-expert user and near real-time sample classification via database matching.« less
  4. Rationale: Laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS) has potential for on-line classification of tissue but an investigation into what analytical conditions provide best spectral differentiation has not been conducted. The effects of solvent, ionization polarity, and spectral acquisition parameters on differentiation of mouse brain tissue regions are described.Methods: Individual 40 × 40 μm microdissections from cortex, white, grey, granular, and nucleus regions of mouse brain tissue were analyzed using different capture/ESI solvents, in positive and negative ion mode ESI, using time-of-flight (TOF)-MS and sequential window acquisitions of all theoretical spectra (SWATH)-MS (a permutation of tandem-MS), and combinations thereof.more » Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), applied to each mass spectral dataset, was used to determine the accuracy of differentiation of mouse brain tissue regions. Results: Mass spectral differences associated with capture/ESI solvent composition manifested as altered relative distributions of ions rather than the presence or absence of unique ions. In negative ion mode ESI, 80/20 (v/v) methanol/water yielded spectra with low signal/noise ratios relative to other solvents. PCA-LDA models acquired using 90/10 (v/v) methanol/chloroform differentiated tissue regions with 100% accuracy while data collected using methanol misclassified some samples. The combination of SWATH-MS and TOF-MS data improved differentiation accuracy.Conclusions: Combined TOF-MS and SWATH-MS data differentiated white, grey, granular, and nucleus mouse tissue regions with greater accuracy than when solely using TOF-MS data. Using 90/10 (v/v) methanol/chloroform, tissue regions were perfectly differentiated. Lastly, these results will guide future studies looking to utilize the potential of LMD-LVC/ESI-MS for tissue and disease differentiation.« less
    Cited by 1
  5. The aim of this work was to demonstrate and to evaluate the analytical performance of a combined falling drop/open port sampling interface (OPSI) system as a simple noncontact, no-carryover, automated system for flow injection analysis with mass spectrometry. The falling sample drops were introduced into the OPSI using a widely available autosampler platform utilizing low cost disposable pipet tips and conventional disposable microtiter well plates. The volume of the drops that fell onto the OPSI was in the 7–15 μL range with an injected sample volume of several hundred nanoliters. Sample drop height, positioning of the internal capillary on themore » sampling end of the probe, and carrier solvent flow rate were optimized for maximum signal. Sample throughput, signal reproducibility, matrix effects, and quantitative analysis capability of the system were established using the drug molecule propranolol and its isotope labeled internal standard in water, unprocessed river water and two commercially available buffer matrices. A sample-to-sample throughput of ~45 s with a ~4.5 s base-to-base flow injection peak profile was obtained in these experiments. In addition, quantitation with minimally processed rat plasma samples was demonstrated with three different statin drugs (atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin). Direct characterization capability of unprocessed samples was demonstrated by the analysis of neat vegetable oils. Employing the autosampler system for spatially resolved liquid extraction surface sampling exemplified by the analysis of propranolol and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide phase II metabolites from a rat thin tissue section was also illustrated.« less
  6. As the spatial resolution of mass spectrometry imaging technologies has begun to reach into the nanometer regime, finding readily available or easily made resolution reference materials has become particularly challenging for molecular imaging purposes. This study describes the fabrication, characterization and use of vertical line array polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging.

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