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  1. Enhanced and stabilized hydrogen production from methanol by ultrasmall Ni nanoclusters immobilized on defect-rich h-BN nanosheets

    Employing liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) to transport hydrogen to where it can be utilized relies on methods of efficient chemical dehydrogenation to access this fuel. Therefore, developing effective strategies to optimize the catalytic performance of cheap transition metal-based catalysts in terms of activity and stability for dehydrogenation of LOHCs is a critical challenge. Here, we report the design and synthesis of ultrasmall nickel nanoclusters (∼1.5 nm) deposited on defect-rich boron nitride (BN) nanosheet (Ni/BN) catalysts with higher methanol dehydrogenation activity and selectivity, and greater stability than that of some other transition-metal based catalysts. The interface of the two-dimensional (2D)more » BN with the metal nanoparticles plays a strong role both in guiding the nucleation and growth of the catalytically active ultrasmall Ni nanoclusters, and further in stabilizing these nanoscale Ni catalysts against poisoning by interactions with the BN substrate. We provide detailed spectroscopy characterizations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to reveal the origin of the high productivity, high selectivity, and high durability exhibited with the Ni/BN nanocatalyst and elucidate its correlation with nanocluster size and support–nanocluster interactions. This study provides insight into the role that the support material can have both regarding the size control of nanoclusters through immobilization during the nanocluster formation and also during the active catalytic process; this twofold set of insights is significant in advancing the understanding the bottom-up design of high-performance, durable catalytic systems for various catalysis needs.« less
  2. Calcium chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) has been a material of interest for many years in developing metal boride complexes and shows a great deal of potential as a hydrogen storage material. Though many have used various additives as catalysts to weaken the bonds within NaBH4 to create a more energetically favorable material, very little is understood about how the borohydride interacts with and changes the additives being incorporated. This work uses ball milling to incorporate calcium chloride (CaCl2) into NaBH4. Using several x-ray techniques, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, this study shows not only that the salt diffuses into NaBH4 but describesmore » how the borohydride changes the additive itself. In gaining a stronger understanding of what happens to the additives needed to weaken the borohydride bonds, future researchers may have an easier time selecting the appropriate additive to create a borohydride complex that will meet their needs.« less
  3. A design of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer for spatial- and time-resolved spectroscopy

    The optical design of a Hettrick–Underwood-style soft X-ray spectrometer with Wolter type 1 mirrors is presented. The spectrometer with a nominal length of 3.1 m can achieve a high resolving power (resolving power higher than 10000) in the soft X-ray regime when a small source beam (<3 µm in the grating dispersion direction) and small pixel detector (5 µm effective pixel size) are used. Adding Wolter mirrors to the spectrometer before its dispersive elements can realize the spatial imaging capability, which finds applications in the spectroscopic studies of spatially dependent electronic structures in tandem catalysts, heterostructures, etc. In the pump–probe experiments where the pumpmore » beam perturbs the materials followed by the time-delayed probe beam to reveal the transient evolution of electronic structures, the imaging capability of the Wolter mirrors can offer the pixel-equivalent femtosecond time delay between the pump and probe beams when their wavefronts are not collinear. In combination with some special sample handing systems, such as liquid jets and droplets, the imaging capability can also be used to study the time-dependent electronic structure of chemical transformation spanning multiple time domains from microseconds to nanoseconds. The proposed Wolter mirrors can also be adopted to the existing soft X-ray spectrometers that use the Hettrick–Underwood optical scheme, expanding their capabilities in materials research.« less
  4. A nature-inspired hydrogen-bonded supramolecular complex for selective copper ion removal from water

    Herein, we present a scalable approach for the synthesis of a hydrogen-bonded organic-inorganic framework via coordination-driven supramolecular chemistry, for efficient remediation of trace heavy metal ions from water. In particular, using copper as our model ion of interest and inspired by nature's use of histidine residues within the active sites of various copper binding proteins, we design a framework featuring pendant imidazole rings and copper-chelating salicylaldoxime, known as zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime supramolecule. This material is water-stable and exhibits unprecedented adsorption kinetics, up to 50 times faster than state-of-the-art materials for selective copper ion capture from water. Furthermore, selective copper removalmore » is achieved using this material in a pH range that was proven ineffective with previously reported metal-organic frameworks. Molecular dynamics simulations show that this supramolecule can reversibly breathe water through lattice expansion and contraction, and that water is initially transported into the lattice through hopping between hydrogen-bond sites.« less
  5. Oxygen evolution reaction over catalytic single-site Co in a well-defined brookite TiO2 nanorod surface

    Efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are paramount to the development of electrochemical devices for clean energy and fuel conversion. However, the structural complexity of heterogeneous electrocatalysts makes it a great challenge to elucidate the surface catalytic sites and OER mechanisms. Here, we report that catalytic single-site Co in a well-defined brookite TiO2 nanorod (210) surface (Co-TiO2) presents turnover frequencies that are among the highest for Co-based heterogeneous catalysts reported to date, reaching 6.6 ± 1.2 and 181.4 ± 28 s-1 at 300 and 400 mV overpotentials, respectively. Based on grand canonical quantum mechanics calculations and the single-sitemore » Co atomic structure validated by in situ and ex situ spectroscopic probes, we have established a full description of the catalytic reaction kinetics for Co-TiO2 as a function of applied potential, revealing an adsorbate evolution mechanism for the OER. The computationally predicted Tafel slope and turnover frequencies exhibit exceedingly good agreement with experiment.« less
  6. Sugar-alcohol@ZIF nanocomposites display suppressed phase-change temperatures

    For the sake of water and energy conservation, development of latent heat cooling and thermal storage systems that minimize water consumption and operate with higher efficacy than their water-driven counterparts is a crucial task. Phase change materials (PCMs) present a potential solution, but their integration into real-world systems abounds with scientific challenges such as material toxicity, flammability, low thermal performance and lack of tunable phase-change temperatures. In this study we report on a first-in-class nanocomposite PCM that leverages non-flammable, non-toxic, high latent heat sugar alcohols (SAs) encapsulated within easy-to-synthesize zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) crystals. We also outline a practical routemore » for surface functionalization with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. The SA@ZIF composites display suppressed phase-change temperatures which, together with alterable surface functionality, broadens their applicability to a plethora of working environments. Direct synthesis of the SA@ZIF composite generates nanoconfined SAs with phase-change temperatures as low as 19.8 °C and latent heats as high as 285 J g–1. This nanoconfinement-induced thermal phenomenon is conserved even after functionalization of the SA@ZIF crystal surface. We believe this study will lay the groundwork as a platform for next generation high performing, tunable PCMs to aid in the realization of waterless cooling systems.« less
  7. Boosting the sodium storage behaviors of carbon materials in ether-based electrolyte through the artificial manipulation of microstructure

    The porous carbon blacks rationally designed by a facile yet efficient NH3 thermal etching route have been investigated as anode materials in an ether-based electrolyte for sodium-ion batteries. The as-synthesized CBN35 carbon black with a 35% weight loss after NH3 thermal etching exhibited a large specific charge capacity of 352 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a superior rate capability of 101 mAh g-1 at 16000 mA g-1, due to its highest microporosity, an appropriate surface area, a desirable microstructure, and a promising hybrid intercalation mechanism. Impressively, even cycled at 1600 mA g-1 over 3200 cycles, an outstanding reversiblemore » capacity of 103 mAh g-1 with a negligible 0.0162% capacity loss per cycle can still be achieved. Based on the multimodal characterizations including the structural probes of phase evolution for carbon materials, the electrochemical techniques, and the surface-sensitive XAS measurements, the exceptional electrochemical properties should stem from several merits of modified carbon black system. While the particular microporous structure provides relatively more accessible sodium storage sites, a novel hybrid intercalation mechanism in ether-based electrolyte would incorporate the sodium ion insertion into the disordered structure with the solvated sodium ion species co-intercalation into the graphitic phase. In addition to the diffusion-controlled redox reactions, the noticeable surface-induced pseudocapacitive reactions also significantly contribute to the charge storage upon sodiation and guarantee the rapid migrations of sodium ions/solvated compounds. In conclusion, this system further features a controlled emergence of a robust but thin solid electrolyte interphase layer, which could suppress the side reactions of active electrode with reactive electrolyte, maintain the fragile porous structure upon cycling, and facilitate the migrations of sodium ions and solvated sodium ion compounds.« less
  8. Disparate Exciton-Phonon Couplings for Zone-Center and Boundary Phonons in Solid-State Graphite

    The exciton-phonon coupling in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is studied using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy. With ~70 meV energy resolution, multiple low energy excitations associated with coupling to phonons can be clearly resolved in the RIXS spectra. Here, using resonance dependence and the closed form for RIXS cross section without considering the intermediate state mixing of phonon modes, the dimensionless coupling constant g is determined to be 5 and 0.35, corresponding to the coupling strength of 0.42 eV+/-20 meV and 0.20 eV+/-20 meV, for zone center and boundary phonons, respectively. The reduced g value for the zone-boundary phononmore » may be related to its double resonance nature.« less
  9. Electrochemical Reactivity and Passivation of Silicon Thin-Film Electrodes in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes

    This work focuses on the mechanisms of interfacial processes at the surface of amorphous silicon thin-film electrodes in organic carbonate electrolytes to unveil the origins of the inherent nonpassivating behavior of silicon anodes in Li-ion batteries. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and infrared near-field scanning optical microscopy were used to investigate the formation, evolution, and chemical composition of the surface layer formed on Si upon cycling. Herein, we found that the chemical composition and thickness of the solid/electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer continuously change during the charging/discharging cycles. This SEI layer “breathing” effect is directly related tomore » the formation of lithium ethylene dicarbonate (LiEDC) and LiPF6 salt decomposition products during silicon lithiation and their subsequent disappearance upon delithiation. Furthermore, the detected appearance and disappearance of LiEDC and LiPF6 decomposition compounds in the SEI layer are directly linked with the observed interfacial instability and poor passivating behavior of the silicon anode.« less
  10. Probing calcium solvation by XAS, MD and DFT calculations

    The solvation shell structures of Ca2+ in aqueous and organic solutions probed by calcium L-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and DFT/MD simulations show the coordination number of Ca2+ to be negatively correlated with the electrolyte concentration and the steric hindrance of the solvent molecule. In this work, the calcium L-edge soft XAS demonstrates its sensitivity to the surrounding chemical environment. Additionally, the total electron yield (TEY) mode is surface sensitive because the electron penetration depth is limited to a few nanometers. Thus this study shows its implications for future battery studies, especially for probing the electrolyte/electrode interface for electrochemicalmore » reactions under in situ/operando conditions.« less
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"Guo, Jinghua"

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