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  1. Abstract
  2. Background Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens. We collected premasticated food and saliva samples from Tsimane mothers and infants (9–24 months of age) to test for evidence of bacterial transmission in premasticated foods and overlap in maternal and infant salivary microbiota.more » We extracted bacterial DNA from two premasticated food samples and 12 matched salivary samples from maternal-infant pairs. DNA sequencing was performed with MiSeq (Illumina). We evaluated maternal and infant microbial composition in terms of relative abundance of specific taxa, alpha and beta diversity, and dissimilarity distances. Results The bacteria in saliva and premasticated food were mapped to 19 phyla and 400 genera and were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The oral microbial communities of Tsimane mothers and infants who frequently share premasticated food were well-separated in a non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination (NMDS) plot. Infant microbiotas clustered together, with weighted Unifrac distances significantly differing between mothers and infants. Infant saliva contained more Firmicutes ( p  < 0.01) and fewer Proteobacteria ( p  < 0.05) than did maternal saliva. Many genera previously associated with dental and periodontal infections, e.g.  Neisseria , Gemella , Rothia , Actinomyces , Fusobacterium , and Leptotrichia , were more abundant in mothers than in infants. Conclusions Salivary microbiota of Tsimane infants and young children up to two years of age do not appear closely related to those of their mothers, despite frequent premastication and preliminary evidence that maternal bacteria is transmitted to premasticated foods. Infant physiology and diet may constrain colonization by maternal bacteria, including several oral pathogens.« less
  3. ABSTRACT The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is an emerging platform species for the industrial production of biofuels. Here, we report the draft assembly and annotation for the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of S. obliquus strain DOE0152z.
  4. Abstract With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam–sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors—namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge—that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample,more » in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2–5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces exhibit significant delocalization. Quantification of thicker samples is further complicated by channeling to heavier sites across the interface, as well as an increased signal background. We show that extreme care must be taken to prepare samples to minimize channeling effects and argue that it may not be possible to extract atomically resolved information from many chemical maps.« less
  5. Abstract Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are unarguably one of the most feared toxic substances produced by mankind. Their inception in conventional warfare can be traced as far back as the Middle Ages but their full breakthrough as central players in bellic conflicts was not realized until World War I. Since then, more modern CWAs along with efficient methods for their manufacture have emerged and violently shaped the way modern warfare and diplomatic relations are conducted. Owing to their mass destruction ability, counter methods to mitigate their impact appeared almost immediately on par with their development. These efforts have focused onmore » their efficient destruction, development of medical countermeasures and their detection by modern analytical chemistry methods. The following review seeks to provide the reader with a broad introduction on their direct detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the various sample derivatization methods available for the analysis of their degradation products. The review concentrates on three of the main CWA classes and includes the nerve agents, the blistering agents and lastly, the incapacitating agents. Each section begins with a brief introduction of the CWA along with discussions of reports dealing with their detection in the intact form by GC-MS. Furthermore, as products arising from their degradation carry as much importance as the agents themselves in the field of forensic analysis, the available derivatization methods of these species are presented for each CWA highlighting some examples from our lab in the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less
  6. Geoscientific models manage myriad and increasingly complex data structures as trans-disciplinary models are integrated. They often incur significant redundancy with cross-cutting tasks. Reflection, the ability of a program to inspect and modify its structure and behavior at runtime, is known as a powerful tool to improve code reusability, abstraction, and separation of concerns. Reflection is rarely adopted in high-performance Geoscientific models, especially with Fortran, where it was previously deemed implausible. Practical constraints of language and legacy often limit us to feather-weight, native-language solutions. We demonstrate the usefulness of a structural-reflection-emulating, dynamically-linked metaObjects, gd. We show real-world examples including data structuremore » self-assembly, effortless save/restart and upgrade to parallel I/O, recursive actions and batch operations. We share gd and a derived module that reproduces MATLAB-like structure in Fortran and C++. We suggest that both a gd representation and a Fortran-native representation are maintained to access the data, each for separate purposes. In conclusion, embracing emulated reflection allows generically-written codes that are highly re-usable across projects.« less
  7. Abstract This study applies atom probe tomography (APT) to analyze the oxide scales formed on model NiAlCr alloys doped with Hf, Y, Ti, and B. Due to its ability to measure small amounts of alloying elements in the oxide matrix and its ability to quantify segregation, t he technique offers a possibility for detailed studies of the dopant’s fate during high-temperature oxidation. Three model NiAlCr alloys with different additions of Hf, Y, Ti, and B were prepared and oxidized in O 2at 1,100°C for 100 h. All specimens showed an outer region consisting of different spinel oxides with relativelymore » small grains and the protective Al 2O 3-oxide layer below. APT analyses focused mainly on this protective oxide layer. In all the investigated samples segregation of both Hf and Y to the oxide grain boundaries was observed and quantified. Neither B nor Ti were observed in the alumina grains or at the analyzed interfaces. The processes of formation of oxide scales and segregation of the alloying elements are discussed. The experimental challenges of the oxide analyses by APT are also addressed.« less
  8. We synthesized and characterized the title compound, (E)-1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2-phenyldiazine (I) using a combination of 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy, infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and GC mass spectrometry. The solid-state structure is also reported. The unsymmetric azobenzene crystallizes in the space group P2 1/c with unit cell parameters a = 8.001(7) Å, b = 17.827(16) Å, c = 11.129(10) Å, β = 101.960(10)°, V = 1553(2) Å 3, Z = 4, D calc = 1.139 g/cm 3.
  9. Abstract Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm 2with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, inmore » particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO 3in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.« less
  10. Abstract The convection-enhanced paradigm behind core-collapse supernovae (SNe) invokes a multi-physics model where convection above the proto-neutron star is able to convert the energy released in the collapse to produce the violent explosions observed as SNe. Over the past decade, the evidence in support of this engine has grown, including constraints placed by SN neutrinos, energies, progenitors and remnants. Although considerable theoretical work remains to utilize this data, our understanding of normal SNe is advancing. To achieve a deeper level of understanding, we must find ways to compare detailed simulations with the increasing set of observational data. Here we reviewmore » the current constraints and how we can apply our current understanding to broaden our understanding of these powerful engines.« less

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