DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Predicting Asteroid Material Properties from a DART-like Kinetic Impact

Abstract

NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission is the first full-scale test of the kinetic impactor method for asteroid deflection, in which a spacecraft intentionally impacts an asteroid to change its trajectory. DART represents an important first step for planetary defense technology demonstration, providing a realistic assessment of the effectiveness of the kinetic impact approach on a near-Earth asteroid. The momentum imparted to the asteroid is transferred from the impacting spacecraft and enhanced by the momentum of material ejected from the impact site. However, the magnitude of the ejecta contribution is dependent on the material properties of the target. These properties, such as strength and shear modulus, are unknown for the DART target asteroid, Dimorphos, as well as most asteroids since such properties are difficult to characterize remotely. This study examines how hydrocode simulations can be used to estimate material properties from information available post-impact, specifically the asteroid size and shape, the velocity and properties of the impacting spacecraft, and the final velocity change imparted to the asteroid. Across >300 three-dimensional simulations varying seven material parameters describing the asteroid, we found many combinations of properties could reproduce a particular asteroid velocity. Additional observations, such as asteroid mass or crater size,more » are required to further constrain properties like asteroid strength or outcomes like the momentum enhancement provided by impact ejecta. Our results demonstrate the vital importance of having as much knowledge as possible prior to an impact mission, with key material parameters being the asteroid’s mass, porosity, strength, and elastic properties.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1893784
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1894991; OSTI ID: 1974949
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-837536; LA-UR-22-28492
Journal ID: ISSN 2632-3338
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; 89233218NCA000001; 89233218CNA000001; 80MSFC20D0004
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
The Planetary Science Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Planetary Science Journal Journal Volume: 3 Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2632-3338
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; asteroids; impact phenomena; near earth objects; DART; kinetic impact; planetary defense; inverse test

Citation Formats

Kumamoto, Kathryn M., Owen, J. Michael, Syal, Megan Bruck, Pearl, Jason, Raskin, Cody, Caldwell, Wendy K., Rainey, Emma, Stickle, Angela M., Daly, R. Terik, and Barnouin, Olivier. Predicting Asteroid Material Properties from a DART-like Kinetic Impact. United Kingdom: N. p., 2022. Web. doi:10.3847/PSJ/ac93f2.
Kumamoto, Kathryn M., Owen, J. Michael, Syal, Megan Bruck, Pearl, Jason, Raskin, Cody, Caldwell, Wendy K., Rainey, Emma, Stickle, Angela M., Daly, R. Terik, & Barnouin, Olivier. Predicting Asteroid Material Properties from a DART-like Kinetic Impact. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.3847/PSJ/ac93f2
Kumamoto, Kathryn M., Owen, J. Michael, Syal, Megan Bruck, Pearl, Jason, Raskin, Cody, Caldwell, Wendy K., Rainey, Emma, Stickle, Angela M., Daly, R. Terik, and Barnouin, Olivier. Wed . "Predicting Asteroid Material Properties from a DART-like Kinetic Impact". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.3847/PSJ/ac93f2.
@article{osti_1893784,
title = {Predicting Asteroid Material Properties from a DART-like Kinetic Impact},
author = {Kumamoto, Kathryn M. and Owen, J. Michael and Syal, Megan Bruck and Pearl, Jason and Raskin, Cody and Caldwell, Wendy K. and Rainey, Emma and Stickle, Angela M. and Daly, R. Terik and Barnouin, Olivier},
abstractNote = {NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission is the first full-scale test of the kinetic impactor method for asteroid deflection, in which a spacecraft intentionally impacts an asteroid to change its trajectory. DART represents an important first step for planetary defense technology demonstration, providing a realistic assessment of the effectiveness of the kinetic impact approach on a near-Earth asteroid. The momentum imparted to the asteroid is transferred from the impacting spacecraft and enhanced by the momentum of material ejected from the impact site. However, the magnitude of the ejecta contribution is dependent on the material properties of the target. These properties, such as strength and shear modulus, are unknown for the DART target asteroid, Dimorphos, as well as most asteroids since such properties are difficult to characterize remotely. This study examines how hydrocode simulations can be used to estimate material properties from information available post-impact, specifically the asteroid size and shape, the velocity and properties of the impacting spacecraft, and the final velocity change imparted to the asteroid. Across >300 three-dimensional simulations varying seven material parameters describing the asteroid, we found many combinations of properties could reproduce a particular asteroid velocity. Additional observations, such as asteroid mass or crater size, are required to further constrain properties like asteroid strength or outcomes like the momentum enhancement provided by impact ejecta. Our results demonstrate the vital importance of having as much knowledge as possible prior to an impact mission, with key material parameters being the asteroid’s mass, porosity, strength, and elastic properties.},
doi = {10.3847/PSJ/ac93f2},
journal = {The Planetary Science Journal},
number = 10,
volume = 3,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2022},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.3847/PSJ/ac93f2

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

AIDA DART asteroid deflection test: Planetary defense and science objectives
journal, August 2018


LICIACube - The Light Italian Cubesat for Imaging of Asteroids In support of the NASA DART mission towards asteroid (65803) Didymos
journal, May 2021


The effects of asteroid layering on ejecta mass-velocity distribution and implications for impact momentum transfer
journal, January 2020


Poisson's Ratio and Auxetic Properties of Natural Rocks
journal, February 2018

  • Ji, Shaocheng; Li, Le; Motra, Hem Bahadur
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 123, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JB014606

The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART): Planetary Defense Investigations and Requirements
journal, August 2021

  • Rivkin, Andrew S.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Stickle, Angela M.
  • The Planetary Science Journal, Vol. 2, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.3847/PSJ/ac063e

CTH: A three-dimensional shock wave physics code
journal, January 1990

  • McGlaun, J. M.; Thompson, S. L.; Elrick, M. G.
  • International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 10, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0734-743X(90)90071-3

Improvements to the ɛ-α porous compaction model for simulating impacts into high-porosity solar system objects
journal, June 2011


The Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa as Observed by Hayabusa
journal, June 2006


Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale
journal, June 1980

  • Grady, D. E.; Kipp, M. E.
  • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 17, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(80)91361-3

Modeling damage and deformation in impact simulations
journal, February 2004


Spectrally optimal sampling for distribution ray tracing
journal, July 1991


Momentum transfer in asteroid impacts. I. Theory and scaling
journal, November 2012


Modeling impact outcomes for the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission
journal, January 2017


Disruption of kilometre-sized asteroids by energetic collisions
journal, June 1998

  • Asphaug, E.; Ostro, S. J.; Hudson, R. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 393, Issue 6684
  • DOI: 10.1038/30911

Shape Modeling of Dimorphos for the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)
journal, September 2022

  • Terik Daly, R.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Barnouin, Olivier S.
  • The Planetary Science Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.3847/PSJ/ac7523

Seismic velocities, Poisson's ratios and potential auxetic behavior of volcanic rocks
journal, September 2019


Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids
journal, January 2017

  • Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Pellicer, Eva; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 835, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/157

Spacecraft Geometry Effects on Kinetic Impactor Missions
journal, September 2022

  • Owen, J. Michael; DeCoster, Mallory E.; Graninger, Dawn M.
  • The Planetary Science Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.3847/PSJ/ac8932

Influence of the projectile geometry on the momentum transfer from a kinetic impactor and implications for the DART mission
journal, April 2022


Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission
journal, October 2015


Shape Dependence of the Kinetic Deflection of Asteroids
journal, October 2017

  • Feldhacker, Juliana D.; Syal, Megan Bruck; Jones, Brandon A.
  • Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 40, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.2514/1.G002270

Global-scale Reshaping and Resurfacing of Asteroids by Small-scale Impacts, with Applications to the DART and Hera Missions
journal, June 2022

  • Raducan, Sabina D.; Jutzi, Martin
  • The Planetary Science Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.3847/PSJ/ac67a7

Deflection by kinetic impact: Sensitivity to asteroid properties
journal, May 2016


European component of the AIDA mission to a binary asteroid: Characterization and interpretation of the impact of the DART mission
journal, October 2018

  • Michel, Patrick; Kueppers, Michael; Sierks, Holger
  • Advances in Space Research, Vol. 62, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.12.020

Verification and Validation of the FLAG Hydrocode for Impact Cratering Simulations
journal, September 2018

  • Caldwell, Wendy K.; Hunter, Abigail; Plesko, Catherine S.
  • Journal of Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4042516

Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor
journal, February 2016


Physical properties of the stone meteorites: Implications for the properties of their parent bodies
journal, September 2018


Compression of aerogels
journal, June 1995


Options and uncertainties in planetary defense: Impulse-dependent response and the physical properties of asteroids
journal, January 2020


Physical and mechanical property relationships of a shallow intrusion and volcanic host rock, Pinnacle Ridge, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand
journal, June 2018


Rubble Pile Asteroids
journal, September 2018


Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures
journal, January 1985


Impact Simulations with Fracture. I. Method and Tests
journal, January 1994


Benchmarking impact hydrocodes in the strength regime: Implications for modeling deflection by a kinetic impactor
journal, March 2020


Numerical simulations of impacts involving porous bodies
journal, November 2008


Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics: Methodology. II.
journal, June 1998

  • Owen, J. Michael; Villumsen, Jens V.; Shapiro, Paul R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 116, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/313100

The effect of fluid and solid properties on the auxetic behavior of porous materials having rock-like microstructures
journal, January 2018


Design of the Didymos Reconnaissance and Asteroid Camera for OpNav (DRACO) on the double asteroid redirection test (DART)
conference, July 2018

  • Ryan, Kyle J.; Fletcher, Zachary J.; Hammond, Randolph
  • Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2310136

On the Intersection Equation of a Hyperboloid and a Plane
journal, January 2013


The role of asteroid strength, porosity and internal friction in impact momentum transfer
journal, September 2019


Frame bulk modulus of porous granular marine sediments
journal, August 2006

  • Kimura, Masao
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1121/1.2211427

Scale-dependent measurements of meteorite strength: Implications for asteroid fragmentation
journal, October 2016


The dynamic strength of an ordinary chondrite: The dynamic strength of an ordinary chondrite
journal, November 2011


Shock simulation by the particle method SPH
journal, November 1983


An artificial impact on the asteroid (162173) Ryugu formed a crater in the gravity-dominated regime
journal, April 2020


Benchmarking Numerical Methods for Impact and Cratering Applications
journal, March 2021

  • Caldwell, Wendy K.; Euser, Bryan; Plesko, Catherine S.
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.3390/app11062504