skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Evidence for a High Temperature Whisker Growth Mechanism Active in Tungsten during In Situ Nanopillar Compression

Abstract

A series of nanopillar compression tests were performed on tungsten as a function of temperature using in situ transmission electron microscopy with localized laser heating. Surface oxidation was observed to form on the pillars and grow in thickness with increasing temperature. Deformation between 850 °C and 1120 °C is facilitated by long-range diffusional transport from the tungsten pillar onto adjacent regions of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 indenter. The constraint imposed by the surface oxidation is hypothesized to underly this mechanism for localized plasticity, which is generally the so-called whisker growth mechanism. The results are discussed in context of the tungsten fuzz growth mechanism in He plasma-facing environments. The two processes exhibit similar morphological features and the conditions under which fuzz evolves appear to satisfy the conditions necessary to induce whisker growth.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1821498
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1822237
Report Number(s):
SAND-2021-11657J
Journal ID: ISSN 2079-4991; NANOKO; PII: nano11092429
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0019875; FWP 15013170; NA-0003525; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Nanomaterials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nanomaterials Journal Volume: 11 Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2079-4991
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
Switzerland
Language:
English
Subject:
tungsten; fuzz; whisker; in situ; transmission electron microscopy

Citation Formats

Jawaharram, Gowtham, Barr, Christopher, Hattar, Khalid, and Dillon, Shen. Evidence for a High Temperature Whisker Growth Mechanism Active in Tungsten during In Situ Nanopillar Compression. Switzerland: N. p., 2021. Web. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092429.
Jawaharram, Gowtham, Barr, Christopher, Hattar, Khalid, & Dillon, Shen. Evidence for a High Temperature Whisker Growth Mechanism Active in Tungsten during In Situ Nanopillar Compression. Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092429
Jawaharram, Gowtham, Barr, Christopher, Hattar, Khalid, and Dillon, Shen. Sat . "Evidence for a High Temperature Whisker Growth Mechanism Active in Tungsten during In Situ Nanopillar Compression". Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092429.
@article{osti_1821498,
title = {Evidence for a High Temperature Whisker Growth Mechanism Active in Tungsten during In Situ Nanopillar Compression},
author = {Jawaharram, Gowtham and Barr, Christopher and Hattar, Khalid and Dillon, Shen},
abstractNote = {A series of nanopillar compression tests were performed on tungsten as a function of temperature using in situ transmission electron microscopy with localized laser heating. Surface oxidation was observed to form on the pillars and grow in thickness with increasing temperature. Deformation between 850 °C and 1120 °C is facilitated by long-range diffusional transport from the tungsten pillar onto adjacent regions of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 indenter. The constraint imposed by the surface oxidation is hypothesized to underly this mechanism for localized plasticity, which is generally the so-called whisker growth mechanism. The results are discussed in context of the tungsten fuzz growth mechanism in He plasma-facing environments. The two processes exhibit similar morphological features and the conditions under which fuzz evolves appear to satisfy the conditions necessary to induce whisker growth.},
doi = {10.3390/nano11092429},
journal = {Nanomaterials},
number = 9,
volume = 11,
place = {Switzerland},
year = {2021},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092429

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Pseudoelasticity of Metal Nanoparticles Is Caused by Their Ultrahigh Strength
journal, January 2019


Microstructure evolution and Young's modulus of He-implanted nanocrystalline tungsten film
journal, May 2019


In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy for Ultrahigh Temperature Mechanical Testing of ZrO 2
journal, December 2019


Formation of helium induced nanostructure ‘fuzz’ on various tungsten grades
journal, September 2010


Model of fuzz formation on a tungsten surface
journal, December 2012


Study of plasma induced nanostructure formation and surface morphology changes on tungsten and stainless steel at atmospheric pressure
journal, January 2019

  • Kovach, Yao E.; Zhang, Feifei; Gao, Fei
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, Vol. 37, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.5030887

General relationship between strength and hardness
journal, November 2011


Tungsten fuzz: Deposition effects and influence to fusion devices
journal, December 2020


Isolated nano-tendril bundles on tungsten surfaces exposed to radiofrequency helium plasma
journal, August 2017


Viscoelastic model of tungsten ‘fuzz’ growth
journal, December 2011


Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Tungsten Thin Films
journal, January 2010


Local temperature measurement in TEM by parallel beam electron diffraction
journal, May 2017


Solute stabilization of nanocrystalline tungsten against abnormal grain growth
journal, September 2017

  • Donaldson, Olivia K.; Hattar, Khalid; Kaub, Tyler
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 33, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.296

Zinc whisker growth from electroplated finishes – a review
journal, March 2015


In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Silver Oxidation in Ionized/Atomic Gas
journal, December 2011

  • Sun, Li; Noh, Kyong Wook; Wen, Jian-Guo
  • Langmuir, Vol. 27, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/la202949c

Effect of humidity on tin whisker growth from Sn 3 Nd intermetallic compound
journal, April 2012

  • Xian, Ai-Ping; Liu, Meng
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 27, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2012.98

Tensile and compressive behavior of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and niobium at the nanoscale
journal, April 2010


Enhanced properties of tungsten thin films deposited with a novel HiPIMS approach
journal, December 2017


Cold-temperature deformation of nano-sized tungsten and niobium as revealed by in-situ nano-mechanical experiments
journal, April 2014

  • Lee, Seok-Woo; Cheng, YinTong; Ryu, Ill
  • Science China Technological Sciences, Vol. 57, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11431-014-5502-8

Spontaneous Growth of Metal Whiskers on Surfaces of Solids: A Review
journal, July 2015

  • Zhang, Peigen; Zhang, Yamei; Sun, Zhengming
  • Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.04.001

Metastable Tantalum Oxide Formation During the Devitrification of Amorphous Tantalum Thin Films
journal, July 2016

  • Donaldson, Olivia K.; Hattar, Khalid; Trelewicz, Jason R.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 99, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.14384

Loop punching and bubble rupture causing surface roughening —A model for W fuzz growth
journal, January 2014


High temperature deformability of ductile flash-sintered ceramics via in-situ compression
journal, May 2018


Formation process of tungsten nanostructure by the exposure to helium plasma under fusion relevant plasma conditions
journal, August 2009


Kinetics of Sn whisker growth from Sn thin-films on Cu substrate
journal, August 2020

  • Illés, Balázs; Krammer, Olivér; Hurtony, Tamás
  • Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 31, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10854-020-04180-2

The in-situ mechanical testing of nanoscale single-crystalline nanopillars
journal, December 2009


Whisker and hillock growth via coupled localized Coble creep, grain boundary sliding, and shear induced grain boundary migration
journal, April 2013


The Vaporization of Molybdenum and Tungsten Oxides
journal, July 1958

  • Blackburn, Paul E.; Hoch, Michael; Johnston, Herrick L.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 62, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/j150565a001

Local variations in grain formation, grain boundary sliding, and whisker growth along grain boundaries in large-grain Sn films
journal, October 2020


A first report on sintering diagrams
journal, March 1974


On the shear strength of tungsten nano-structures with embedded helium
journal, July 2013


Numerical estimation of the oxygen impurity transport in the Aditya tokamak
journal, February 2020

  • Bhattacharya, Amrita; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, M. B.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5115230

Growth of whiskers from Sn surfaces: Driving forces and growth mechanisms
journal, May 2013


An overview of creep in tungsten and its alloys
journal, August 2019

  • Webb, J.; Gollapudi, S.; Charit, I.
  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol. 82
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2019.03.022

Mechanical characterization of nanofibers – A review
journal, July 2006


In situ transmission electron microscope observation of the formation of fuzzy structures on tungsten
journal, April 2014


Thermal expansion of tungsten in the range 1500?3600 K by a transient interferometric technique
journal, July 1990

  • Miiller, A. P.; Cezairliyan, A.
  • International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01184332

Whisker Formation on Electronic Materials
journal, March 1976


Morphologies of tungsten nanotendrils grown under helium exposure
journal, February 2017

  • Wang, Kun; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep42315

Irradiation induced creep in nanocrystalline high entropy alloys
journal, January 2020


Whisker Growth in Sn Coatings: A Review of Current Status and Future Prospects
journal, September 2020


A model for the spontaneous growth of zinc, cadmium and tin whiskers
journal, February 1976


A THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE TUNGSTEN-OXYGEN SYSTEM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES 1
journal, December 1963

  • Ackermann, R. J.; Rauh, E. G.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 67, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100806a023

Evolution of tin whiskers and subsiding grains in thermal cycling
journal, October 2013

  • Wang, Ying; Blendell, John E.; Handwerker, Carol A.
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 49, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7788-5

Early stage damage of ultrafine-grained tungsten materials exposed to low energy helium ion irradiation
journal, April 2015