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Title: Refractive index matched polymeric and preceramic resins for height-scalable two-photon lithography

Abstract

Nanofabrication techniques that can generate large and complex 3D structures with nanoscale features are becoming increasingly important in the fields of biomedicine, micro-optics, and microfluidics. Direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization (DLW-TPP) is one such technique that relies on nonlinear absorption of light to form nanoscale 3D features. Although DLW-TPP provides the required nanoscale resolution, its built height is often limited to less than a millimetre. This height limitation is driven by the need to tightly focus the laser beam at arbitrary depths within the photopolymer. This requirement necessitates matching the photopolymer's refractive index to specific values but the required techniques have not been disseminated widely in the open scientific literature. To address this knowledge gap, we test two universal, different approaches to generate refractive index-matched polymeric and preceramic resins and demonstrate their performance by printing of fine submicron features in 3D structures as tall as 2.5 mm. Specifically, we achieve index-matching by mixing commercially-available resins or covalent modification of functional monomers. This work investigates the relationship of voxel shape to RI mismatch, and presents tuning of RI through mixing and covalent modification to a nonconventional material system of preceramic resin which has never been demonstrated before. We demonstrate themore » material flexibility by generating 3D silicon oxycarbide structures from preceramic resists while simultaneously eliminating the part-height limitation of conventional DLW-TPP.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1]
  1. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, USA
  2. Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, USA
  3. Department of Chemistry, United States Air Force Academy, USA
  4. George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1798925
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1818398
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-819681
Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069; RSCACL
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: RSC Advances Journal Volume: 11 Journal Issue: 37; Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; materials science; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; physical and analytical chemistry

Citation Formats

Mettry, Magi, Worthington, Matthew A., Au, Brian, Forien, Jean-Baptiste, Chandrasekaran, Swetha, Heth, Nicholas A., Schwartz, Johanna J., Liang, Siwei, Smith, William, Biener, Juergen, Saha, Sourabh K., and Oakdale, James S. Refractive index matched polymeric and preceramic resins for height-scalable two-photon lithography. United Kingdom: N. p., 2021. Web. doi:10.1039/D1RA01733K.
Mettry, Magi, Worthington, Matthew A., Au, Brian, Forien, Jean-Baptiste, Chandrasekaran, Swetha, Heth, Nicholas A., Schwartz, Johanna J., Liang, Siwei, Smith, William, Biener, Juergen, Saha, Sourabh K., & Oakdale, James S. Refractive index matched polymeric and preceramic resins for height-scalable two-photon lithography. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1RA01733K
Mettry, Magi, Worthington, Matthew A., Au, Brian, Forien, Jean-Baptiste, Chandrasekaran, Swetha, Heth, Nicholas A., Schwartz, Johanna J., Liang, Siwei, Smith, William, Biener, Juergen, Saha, Sourabh K., and Oakdale, James S. Mon . "Refractive index matched polymeric and preceramic resins for height-scalable two-photon lithography". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1RA01733K.
@article{osti_1798925,
title = {Refractive index matched polymeric and preceramic resins for height-scalable two-photon lithography},
author = {Mettry, Magi and Worthington, Matthew A. and Au, Brian and Forien, Jean-Baptiste and Chandrasekaran, Swetha and Heth, Nicholas A. and Schwartz, Johanna J. and Liang, Siwei and Smith, William and Biener, Juergen and Saha, Sourabh K. and Oakdale, James S.},
abstractNote = {Nanofabrication techniques that can generate large and complex 3D structures with nanoscale features are becoming increasingly important in the fields of biomedicine, micro-optics, and microfluidics. Direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization (DLW-TPP) is one such technique that relies on nonlinear absorption of light to form nanoscale 3D features. Although DLW-TPP provides the required nanoscale resolution, its built height is often limited to less than a millimetre. This height limitation is driven by the need to tightly focus the laser beam at arbitrary depths within the photopolymer. This requirement necessitates matching the photopolymer's refractive index to specific values but the required techniques have not been disseminated widely in the open scientific literature. To address this knowledge gap, we test two universal, different approaches to generate refractive index-matched polymeric and preceramic resins and demonstrate their performance by printing of fine submicron features in 3D structures as tall as 2.5 mm. Specifically, we achieve index-matching by mixing commercially-available resins or covalent modification of functional monomers. This work investigates the relationship of voxel shape to RI mismatch, and presents tuning of RI through mixing and covalent modification to a nonconventional material system of preceramic resin which has never been demonstrated before. We demonstrate the material flexibility by generating 3D silicon oxycarbide structures from preceramic resists while simultaneously eliminating the part-height limitation of conventional DLW-TPP.},
doi = {10.1039/D1RA01733K},
journal = {RSC Advances},
number = 37,
volume = 11,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2021},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
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https://doi.org/10.1039/D1RA01733K

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