DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A review on molten sulfate salts induced hot corrosion

ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:  
Resource Type:
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Science and Technology Journal Volume: 90 Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1005-0302
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom

Citation Formats

Hu, Shanshan, Finklea, Harry, and Liu, Xingbo. A review on molten sulfate salts induced hot corrosion. United Kingdom: N. p., 2021. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jmst.2021.03.013.
Hu, Shanshan, Finklea, Harry, & Liu, Xingbo. A review on molten sulfate salts induced hot corrosion. United Kingdom.
Hu, Shanshan, Finklea, Harry, and Liu, Xingbo. Mon . "A review on molten sulfate salts induced hot corrosion". United Kingdom.
title = {A review on molten sulfate salts induced hot corrosion},
author = {Hu, Shanshan and Finklea, Harry and Liu, Xingbo},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jmst.2021.03.013},
journal = {Journal of Materials Science and Technology},
number = C,
volume = 90,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2021},
month = {11}

Works referenced in this record:

The Volatilization of Chromium Oxide
journal, January 1961

  • Caplan, D.; Cohen, M.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 108, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2428106

A comprehensive characterisation of fly ash from a thermal power plant in Eastern India
journal, February 2006

The high temperature corrosion of a commercial aluminide coating on IN738-LC and MarMOO2 at 700°C and 830°C
journal, January 1985

Corrosion of austenitic steels in molten sulphate deposits
journal, January 1980

Accelerated hot corrosion studies of cold spray Ni–50Cr coating on boiler steels
journal, January 2010

Chemistry and electrochemistry of hot corrosion of metals
journal, March 1987

The Solubilities of NiO , Co3 O 4, and Ternary Oxides in Fused Na2 SO 4 at 1200°K
journal, October 1980

  • Gupta, Dilip K.; Rapp, Robert A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 127, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2129374

Hot corrosion studies of HVOF sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr and Ni–20Cr coatings on nickel-based superalloy at 900 °C
journal, October 2006

Hot Corrosion of High-Temperature Alloys
journal, August 1977

Preparation and hot corrosion behaviour of two Co modified NiAl coatings on a Ni-based superalloy
journal, November 2013

Hot corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in thermal energy storage material of molten MgCl2/KCl/NaCl under inert atmosphere
journal, September 2018

Hot corrosion of materials: Fundamental studies
journal, December 1994

Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw fired boiler
journal, March 1998

  • Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim
  • Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 54, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3820(97)00062-3

Effect of superficially applied ZrO2 inhibitor on the high temperature corrosion performance of some Fe-, Co- and Ni-base superalloys
journal, August 2008

A study of the Ag(s)/Ag2 SO4+Na2 SO4(l)1102 reference electrode
journal, March 1980

  • Shores, D. A.; John, R. C.
  • Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00726097

Failure analysis of boiler cold and hot reheater tubes
journal, June 2007

Failure of gas turbine blades
journal, February 2002

Electrochemical study on hot corrosion of Si-modified aluminide coated In-738LC in Na2SO4–20 wt.% NaCl melt at 750 °C
journal, May 2003

Hot corrosion behavior of Co modified NiAl coating on nickel base superalloys
journal, October 2012

Hot corrosion influence on deformation and damage mechanisms in turbine blades made of IN-792 during service
journal, February 2019

Oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of a novel enamel-Al2O3 composite coating on K38G superalloy
journal, May 2006

Combating hot corrosion of boiler tubes – A study
journal, December 2018

Hot corrosion of materials: a fluxing mechanism?
journal, February 2002

Influence of Cryomilling on the Morphology and Composition of the Oxide Scales Formed on HVOF CoNiCrAlY Coatings
journal, April 2004

Role of chlorides in hot corrosion of a cast Fe–Cr–Ni alloy. Part I: Experimental studies
journal, December 2004

Hot-corrosion behaviors of overlay-clad yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings in contact with vanadate–sulfate salts
journal, April 2010

Role of chlorides in hot corrosion of a cast Fe–Cr–Ni alloy. Part II: thermochemical model studies
journal, December 2004

Effects of Al and Ta on the high temperature oxidation of Ni-based superalloys
journal, January 2015

Sulfate-induced high-temperature corrosion of nickel
journal, August 1980

  • Kofstad, P.; �kesson, G.
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 14, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00603787

Preparation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of a NiCrAlY + AlNiY Composite Coating
journal, June 2016

Failure analysis of Incoloy 800HT pipe at high temperature
journal, July 2013

Assessment of premature failure in a first stage gas turbine nozzle
journal, July 2011

Solubilities of α ‐ Fe2 O 3 and Fe3 O 4 in Fused Na2 SO 4 at 1200 K
journal, October 1985

  • Zhang, Y. S.; Rapp, Robert A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2113608

Influence of Ta content on hot corrosion behaviour of a directionally solidified nickel base superalloy
journal, January 2015

Comparison of two kinds of Si-B-Y co-deposition coatings on an Nb-Ti-Si based alloy by pack cementation method
journal, October 2017

A Zr-doped single-phase Pt-modified aluminide coating and the enhanced hot corrosion resistance
journal, April 2018

Micro- and nanochemistry of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant
journal, November 2003

  • Gieré, Reto; Carleton, Loran E.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.
  • American Mineralogist, Vol. 88, Issue 11-12
  • DOI: 10.2138/am-2003-11-1228

Hot corrosion behaviour of (γ+α2)-Ti-46Al-8Nb (at.%) and α-Ti-6Al-1Mn (at.%) alloys
journal, February 2017

Long-term high-velocity oxidation and hot corrosion testing of several NiCrAl and FeCrAl base oxide dispersion strengthened alloys
journal, April 1982

  • Lowell, Carl E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 17, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00738383

Corrosion of 85 Ni-15 Cr Alloy at 1600 F in Controlled Atmospheres Containing O 2 , SO 2 , SO 3 , H 2 S, and N 2
journal, January 1970

High-temperature oxidation and hot-corrosion behavior of a sputtered NiCrAlY coating with and without aluminizing
journal, September 2006

The hot corrosion behaviour of HVOF sprayed MCrAlX coatings under Na2SO4 (+NaCl) salt films
journal, September 2003

  • Pahlavanyali, S.; Sabour, A.; Hirbod, M.
  • Materials and Corrosion, Vol. 54, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/maco.200303681

Preparation and hot corrosion behaviour of Pt modified AlSiY coating on a Ni-based superalloy
journal, March 2016

Identification of hot corrosion resistant MCrAlY based bond coatings for gas turbine engine applications
journal, May 2001

Failure of first stage gas turbine blades
journal, August 2004

Preparation and hot corrosion behaviour of a MCrAlY+AlSiY composite coating
journal, November 2008

The preparation and hot corrosion resistance of gradient NiCoCrAlYSiB coatings
journal, March 2006

The oxidation of nickel in atmospheres containing sulphur dioxide
journal, January 1972

Hot-corrosion mechanism of Ni-Cr coatings at 650°C under different simulated corrosion conditions
journal, September 2008

Elektrochemische Korrosionsuntersuchungen in einer eutektischen Alkalisulfatschmelze
journal, September 1968

The low temperature hot corrosion of iron and iron-aluminum alloys
journal, September 1992

Effects of SO2 and SO3 on the Na2SO4 induced corrosion of nickel
journal, August 1984

  • Misra, A. K.; Whittle, D. P.
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 22, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00659246

Effect of composition on the oxidation and hot corrosion resistance of NiAl doped with precious metals
journal, November 2000

Hot Corrosion of Nimonic 105 in Sodium Sulfate-Sodium Chloride Melts
journal, July 1981

  • Sequeira, C. A. C.; Hocking, M. G.
  • Corrosion, Vol. 37, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.5006/1.3577291

Role of platinum in the Na2SO4-Induced hot corrosion resistance of aluminum duffusion coatings
journal, August 1984

  • Wu, W. T.; Rahmel, A.; Schorr, M.
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 22, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00659249

Effect of Hydrogen Charging on the Stress Corrosion Behavior of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Under 3.5 wt.% NaCl Thin Electrolyte Layer
journal, May 2017

  • Zhao, Tianliang; Liu, Zhiyong; Hu, Shanshan
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 26, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-017-2713-8

Morphology of sintered silicide coatings remelted by high frequency electron beam
journal, September 2012

Hot corrosion of nanostructured CoNiCrAlYSi coatings deposited by high velocity oxy fuel process
journal, January 2014

Sulfidic corrosion in refineries – a review
journal, January 2011

Sliding and Rolling Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Coatings Derived from Conventional, Fine and Nanostructured WC-12Co Powders
journal, November 2013

  • Tillmann, W.; Baumann, I.; Hollingsworth, P. S.
  • Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol. 23, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11666-013-0038-1

Microstructure and hot corrosion behavior of Co–Si modified aluminide coating on nickel based superalloys
journal, November 2015

High-temperature oxidation and hot corrosion behaviors of the NiCr–CrAl coating on a nickel-based superalloy
journal, August 2005

Hot corrosion performance of a NiCr coated Ni-based alloy
journal, July 2006

Solubility of α-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] in Fused Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] at 1200 K
journal, January 1985

  • Jose, P. D.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2113944

Solubility of α ‐ Fe2 O 3 in Fused Na2 SO 4 at 1200 K
journal, March 1985

  • Zhang, Y. S.; Rapp, Robert A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2113943

The effect of K2SO4 additive in Na2SO4 deposits on low temperature hot corrosion of iron-aluminum alloys
journal, December 1992

  • Shi, Liangquan; Zhang, Yunshu; Shih, Shengtai
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 38, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00665661

Hot corrosion in gas turbine components
journal, February 2002

Effect of a sputtered TiAlCr coating on hot corrosion resistance of gamma-TiAl
journal, November 1999

Formation and oxidation resistance of germanium modified silicide coating on Nb based in situ composites
journal, March 2014

Some studies on hot corrosion performance of plasma sprayed coatings on a Fe-based superalloy
journal, March 2005

Hot corrosion of NiCr alloys in SO2+O2 atmospheres—I. Corrosion kinetics
journal, January 1976

Hot corrosion behavior of silicide coating on an Nb–Ti–Si based ultrahigh temperature alloy
journal, February 2015

The influence of electrode potential on the corrosion of gas turbine alloys in sulfate melts
journal, October 1982

  • Rahmel, A.; Schmidt, M.; Schorr, Monika
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 18, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00662038

Synergistic Dissolution of Oxides in Molten Sodium Sulfate
journal, January 1990

  • Hwang, Yie-Shing
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2086647

Effect of Rhenium Addition on Hot Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloys
journal, June 2018

  • Chang, J. X.; Wang, D.; Liu, X. G.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 49, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-018-4711-3

Failure analysis of a gas turbine blade made of Inconel 738LC alloy
journal, June 2005

Hot corrosion behavior of MCrAlY coatings on IN738LC
journal, December 2006

Solubilities of Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] in Fused Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] at 1200 K
journal, January 1986

  • Zhang, Y. S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 133, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2108648

Influence of Carbon on the Hot Corrosion Behaviour of Fe-Base Alloys
journal, January 1989

Thermodynamics of the Na2SO4-K2SO4-CoSO4 system and their relevance to low-temperature hot corrosion
journal, June 1989

  • LeBlanc, Oliver H.; Luthra, Krishan L.; Haskell, Roger W.
  • Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 31, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00666464

Effect of Zr content on the structure and oxidation resistance of silicide coatings prepared by pack cementation technique
journal, February 2019

Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Resistance of HVOF WC-NiCrFeSiB Coating on Ni- and Fe-based Superalloys at 800 °C
journal, October 2007

  • Sidhu, T. S.; Malik, A.; Prakash, S.
  • Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol. 16, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11666-007-9106-8

High temperature corrosion behaviour of a gradient NiCoCrAlYSi coating II: Oxidation and hot corrosion
journal, July 2010

Impacts of Applied Stresses on High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of HR3C in Molten Salt
journal, December 2014

Preparation and hot corrosion behaviour of an Al-gradient NiCoCrAlYSiB coating on a Ni-base superalloy
journal, April 2009

Effects of external stresses on hot corrosion behavior of stainless steel TP347HFG
journal, March 2016

Deposition of Cr-modified silicide coatings on Nb–Si system intermetallics
journal, May 2007

Failure analysis of stainless steel tubes in a recuperator due to elevated temperature sulphur corrosion
journal, September 2008

A novel Zr-Y modified silicide coating on Nb-Si based alloys as protection against oxidation and hot corrosion
journal, December 2020

High temperature corrosion in fluidized bed combustion systems
journal, March 1986

  • Stringer, J.; Minchener, A. J.
  • Journal of Materials for Energy Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02833572

High-temperature stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating on niobium alloy—C-103
journal, February 2016

  • Panwar, S. S.; Patro, T. Umasankar; Balasubramanian, K.
  • Bulletin of Materials Science, Vol. 39, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12034-015-1140-4

Failure analysis of superheater tube
journal, February 2015

High Temperature Corrosion Failure of a Secondary Superheater Tube in a Thermal Power Plant Boiler
journal, April 2009

Hot Corrosion Behavior of Si–Y–Co-Modified Aluminide Coating Exposed to NaCl + Na2SO4 Salt at 1173 K
journal, November 2015

Hot corrosion failure in the first stage nozzle of a gas turbine engine
journal, February 2016

The role of chlorine in high temperature corrosion in waste-to-energy plants
journal, January 1997

Use of plasma spray technology for deposition of high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistant coatings – a review
journal, February 2007

Failure analysis of a first stage IN738 gas turbine blade tip cracking in a thermal power plant
journal, April 2017

  • Rani, Sushila; Agrawal, Atul K.; Rastogi, Vikas
  • Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.11.002

Corrosion performance of heat resistant alloys in Na2SO4–V2O5 molten salts
journal, November 2006

  • Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Haro, S.; Martinez-Villafañe, A.
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 435-436
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2006.06.138

High temperature hot corrosion behaviour of NiCr and Cr3C2–NiCr coatings on T91 boiler steel in an aggressive environment at 750°C
journal, May 2012

Hot corrosion behaviour of low Al NiCoCrAlY cladded coatings reinforced by nano-particles on a Ni-base super alloy
journal, October 2010

Solubility of Oxygen and Sulfur Dioxide in Molten Sodium Sulfate and Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Molten Sodium Carbonate
journal, February 1979

  • Andresen, Rolf E.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 126, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2129031

Development of silicide coatings over Nb–NbCr 2 alloy and their oxidation behavior at 1250 °C
journal, November 2014

Hot corrosion behaviour of a Ni+CrAlYSiN composite coating in Na2SO4–25wt.% NaCl melt
journal, March 2013

Influence of Nb and Y on Hot Corrosion Behavior of Ni–Cr-based Superalloys
journal, December 2014

High temperature corrosion behavior of an AIP NiCoCrAlY coating modified by aluminizing
journal, August 2011

High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Superalloys in Molten Salts – A Review
journal, November 2016

  • Patel, Niketan S.; Pavlík, Viliam; Boča, Miroslav
  • Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, Vol. 42, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1080/10408436.2016.1243090

Rumpling of CVD (Ni,Pt)Al diffusion coatings under intermediate temperature cycling
journal, July 2009

A review of recent studies of the role of zinc as an inhibitor of hot corrosion from molten sulphates
journal, November 1989

Transport of Oxidant in Molten Na2 SO 4 in  O 2 ‐  SO 2 ‐  SO 3 Environments
journal, February 1981

  • Shores, David A.; Fang, W. C.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 128, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2127417

Hot corrosion of AlCuFeCr quasicrystalline coating on titanium alloys with NaCl deposit
journal, October 2006

Hot Corrosion of Metals and Alloys
journal, May 2011

Corrosion of Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 refractories by sodium and sulfur vapors: A case study on hazardous waste incinerators
journal, May 2017

Nickel oxide as a new inhibitor of vanadium-induced hot corrosion of superalloys—comparison to MgO-based inhibitor
journal, January 2002

  • Rocca, E.; Aranda, L.; Moliere, M.
  • J. Mater. Chem., Vol. 12, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/B205746H

Na2SO4-induced accelerated oxidation (hot corrosion) of nickel
journal, July 1970

  • Goebel, J. A.; Pettit, F. S.
  • Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 1, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02642794

Low Temperature Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys: Part II. Reaction Mechanism
journal, October 1982

Effect of temperature on coal ash hot corrosion resistance of Inconel 740 superalloy
journal, May 2014

The mechanism of the low-temperature hot corrosion of pure iron and manganese at 600–800°C
journal, December 1988

Electrochemical Reactions in Molten Na2 SO 4 at 900°C
journal, August 1986

  • Park, Chong O.; Rapp, Robert A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 133, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2108981

The implications of chlorine-associated corrosion on the operation of biomass-fired boilers
journal, June 2000

  • Nielsen, H. P.; Frandsen, F. J.; Dam-Johansen, K.
  • Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0360-1285(00)00003-4

Failure analysis of a second stage blade in a gas turbine engine
journal, December 2008

Hot corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed YSZ/Al2O3 dispersed NiCrAlY coatings on Inconel-718 superalloy
journal, October 2009

High-Temperature Corrosion in Waste-to-Energy Boilers
journal, March 2007

  • Lee, Shang-Hsiu; Themelis, Nickolas J.; Castaldi, Marco J.
  • Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11666-006-9005-4

Mechanisms for the hot corrosion of nickel-base alloys
journal, January 1973

  • Goebel, J. A.; Pettit, F. S.; Goward, G. W.
  • Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02649626

Microstructural stability of zirconia–alumina composite coatings during hot corrosion test at 1050°C
journal, September 2010

Metallurgical failure analysis for a blade failed in a gas-turbine engine of a power plant
journal, September 2009

Hot corrosion behaviour of HVOF-sprayed Cr 3 C 2 -NiCrMoNbAl coating
journal, January 2017

Rare Earth-Based Compounds as Inhibitors of Hot-Corrosion Induced by Vanadium Salts
journal, November 2019

  • Flores-Garcia, N. S.; Arrieta-Gonzalez, C. D.; Ramos-Hernandez, J. J.
  • Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma12223796

Evaluation of hot corrosion behaviour of HVOF sprayed NiCrAl coating on superalloys at 900°C
journal, October 2008

Hot corrosion of some superalloys and role of high-velocity oxy-fuel spray coatings—a review
journal, August 2005

Electrochemical Impedance Studies of Hot Corrosion of Preoxidized Ni by a Thin‐Fused Na2 SO 4 Film
journal, September 1991

  • Wu, Yiing Mei; Rapp, Robert A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2086037

Hot Corrosion of Preoxidized Ni by a Thin Fused Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] Film at 900°C
journal, January 1990

  • Otsuka, Nobuo
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2086436

Effects of Chromate and Vanadate Anions on the Hot Corrosion of Preoxidized Ni by a Thin Fused Na2 SO 4 Film at 900°C
journal, January 1990

  • Otsuka, Nobuo; Rapp, Robert A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2086437