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Title: Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach

Abstract

FLUXNET comprises globally distributed eddy-covariance-based estimates of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Since eddy covariance flux towers have a relatively small footprint and are distributed unevenly across the world, upscaling the observations is necessary to obtain global-scale estimates of biosphere–atmosphere exchange. Based on cross-consistency checks with atmospheric inversions, sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), here we provide a systematic assessment of the latest upscaling efforts for gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the FLUXCOM initiative, where different machine learning methods, forcing data sets and sets of predictor variables were employed. Spatial patterns of mean GPP are consistent across FLUXCOM and DGVM ensembles (R2>0.94 at 1° spatial resolution) while the majority of DGVMs show, for 70 % of the land surface, values outside the FLUXCOM range. Global mean GPP magnitudes for 2008–2010 from FLUXCOM members vary within 106 and 130 PgC yr-1 with the largest uncertainty in the tropics. Seasonal variations in independent SIF estimates agree better with FLUXCOM GPP (mean global pixel-wise R2~0.75) than with GPP from DGVMs (mean global pixel-wise R2~0.6). Seasonal variations in FLUXCOM NEE show good consistency with atmospheric inversion-based net land carbon fluxes, particularly for temperatemore » and boreal regions (R2>0.92). Interannual variability of global NEE in FLUXCOM is underestimated compared to inversions and DGVMs. The FLUXCOM version which also uses meteorological inputs shows a strong co-variation in interannual patterns with inversions (R2=0.87 for 2001–2010). Mean regional NEE from FLUXCOM shows larger uptake than inversion and DGVM-based estimates, particularly in the tropics with discrepancies of up to several hundred grammes of carbon per square metre per year. These discrepancies can only partly be reconciled by carbon loss pathways that are implicit in inversions but not captured by the flux tower measurements such as carbon emissions from fires and water bodies. We hypothesize that a combination of systematic biases in the underlying eddy covariance data, in particular in tall tropical forests, and a lack of site history effects on NEE in FLUXCOM are likely responsible for the too strong tropical carbon sink estimated by FLUXCOM. Furthermore, as FLUXCOM does not account for CO2 fertilization effects, carbon flux trends are not realistic. Overall, current FLUXCOM estimates of mean annual and seasonal cycles of GPP as well as seasonal NEE variations provide useful constraints of global carbon cycling, while interannual variability patterns from FLUXCOM are valuable but require cautious interpretation. Exploring the diversity of Earth observation data and of machine learning concepts along with improved quality and quantity of flux tower measurements will facilitate further improvements of the FLUXCOM approach overall.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [1]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12]; ORCiD logo [13];  [14];  [15]; ORCiD logo [16] more »; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [1];  [18]; ORCiD logo [19];  [20]; ORCiD logo [1];  [21];  [22]; ORCiD logo [23];  [1];  [1] « less
  1. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)
  2. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)
  4. Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)
  5. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Wageningen Univ. and Research (Netherlands)
  6. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany)
  7. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal)
  8. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  9. Univ. of Augsburg (Germany)
  10. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Caberra (Australia)
  11. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  12. Chiba Univ. (Japan); National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)
  13. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  14. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Nanjing Normal Univ. (China)
  15. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  16. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  17. Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)
  18. Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy); Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC), Lecce (Italy)
  19. Wageningen Univ. and Research (Netherlands)
  20. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany)
  21. Univ. of Exeter (United States)
  22. Univ. of Valencia, Paterna (Spain); Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy)
  23. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); European Space Agency; European Institute of Innovation and Technology; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1761654
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; SC0016323; 647423; ESRIN/4000123002/18/I-NB; 776186; 776810; 640176; GA 820852
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biogeosciences (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Biogeosciences (Online); Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1726-4189
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, and Reichstein, Markus. Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020.
Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, & Reichstein, Markus. Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach. United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020
Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, and Reichstein, Markus. Mon . "Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1761654.
@article{osti_1761654,
title = {Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach},
author = {Jung, Martin and Schwalm, Christopher and Migliavacca, Mirco and Walther, Sophia and Camps-Valls, Gustau and Koirala, Sujan and Anthoni, Peter and Besnard, Simon and Bodesheim, Paul and Carvalhais, Nuno and Chevallier, Frédéric and Gans, Fabian and Goll, Daniel S. and Haverd, Vanessa and Köhler, Philipp and Ichii, Kazuhito and Jain, Atul K. and Liu, Junzhi and Lombardozzi, Danica and Nabel, Julia S. and Nelson, Jacob A. and O'Sullivan, Michael and Pallandt, Martijn and Papale, Dario and Peters, Wouter and Pongratz, Julia and Rödenbeck, Christian and Sitch, Stephen and Tramontana, Gianluca and Walker, Anthony and Weber, Ulrich and Reichstein, Markus},
abstractNote = {FLUXNET comprises globally distributed eddy-covariance-based estimates of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Since eddy covariance flux towers have a relatively small footprint and are distributed unevenly across the world, upscaling the observations is necessary to obtain global-scale estimates of biosphere–atmosphere exchange. Based on cross-consistency checks with atmospheric inversions, sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), here we provide a systematic assessment of the latest upscaling efforts for gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the FLUXCOM initiative, where different machine learning methods, forcing data sets and sets of predictor variables were employed. Spatial patterns of mean GPP are consistent across FLUXCOM and DGVM ensembles (R2>0.94 at 1° spatial resolution) while the majority of DGVMs show, for 70 % of the land surface, values outside the FLUXCOM range. Global mean GPP magnitudes for 2008–2010 from FLUXCOM members vary within 106 and 130 PgC yr-1 with the largest uncertainty in the tropics. Seasonal variations in independent SIF estimates agree better with FLUXCOM GPP (mean global pixel-wise R2~0.75) than with GPP from DGVMs (mean global pixel-wise R2~0.6). Seasonal variations in FLUXCOM NEE show good consistency with atmospheric inversion-based net land carbon fluxes, particularly for temperate and boreal regions (R2>0.92). Interannual variability of global NEE in FLUXCOM is underestimated compared to inversions and DGVMs. The FLUXCOM version which also uses meteorological inputs shows a strong co-variation in interannual patterns with inversions (R2=0.87 for 2001–2010). Mean regional NEE from FLUXCOM shows larger uptake than inversion and DGVM-based estimates, particularly in the tropics with discrepancies of up to several hundred grammes of carbon per square metre per year. These discrepancies can only partly be reconciled by carbon loss pathways that are implicit in inversions but not captured by the flux tower measurements such as carbon emissions from fires and water bodies. We hypothesize that a combination of systematic biases in the underlying eddy covariance data, in particular in tall tropical forests, and a lack of site history effects on NEE in FLUXCOM are likely responsible for the too strong tropical carbon sink estimated by FLUXCOM. Furthermore, as FLUXCOM does not account for CO2 fertilization effects, carbon flux trends are not realistic. Overall, current FLUXCOM estimates of mean annual and seasonal cycles of GPP as well as seasonal NEE variations provide useful constraints of global carbon cycling, while interannual variability patterns from FLUXCOM are valuable but require cautious interpretation. Exploring the diversity of Earth observation data and of machine learning concepts along with improved quality and quantity of flux tower measurements will facilitate further improvements of the FLUXCOM approach overall.},
doi = {10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020},
journal = {Biogeosciences (Online)},
number = 5,
volume = 17,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

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