skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multimodel Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations

Abstract

The Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Model Intercomparison Project (RCEMIP) is an intercomparison of multiple types of numerical models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE). RCE is an idealization of the tropical atmosphere that has long been used to study basic questions in climate science. Here, we employ RCE to investigate the role that clouds and convective activity play in determining cloud feedbacks, climate sensitivity, the state of convective aggregation, and the equilibrium climate. RCEMIP is unique among intercomparisons in its inclusion of a wide range of model types, including atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs), single column models (SCMs), cloud-resolving models (CRMs), large eddy simulations (LES), and global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs). The first results are presented from the RCEMIP ensemble of more than 30 models. While there are large differences across the RCEMIP ensemble in the representation of mean profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloudiness, in a majority of models anvil clouds rise, warm, and decrease in area coverage in response to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). Nearly all models exhibit self-aggregation in large domains and agree that self-aggregation acts to dry and warm the troposphere, reduce high cloudiness, and increase cooling to space. The degree of self-aggregation exhibits no clear tendencymore » with warming. There is a wide range of climate sensitivities, but models with parameterized convection tend to have lower climate sensitivities than models with explicit convection. In models with parameterized convection, aggregated simulations have lower climate sensitivities than unaggregated simulations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [2];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [3];  [4];  [15];  [16] more »;  [8];  [17];  [4];  [2];  [18];  [6];  [19];  [7];  [8];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [16];  [3];  [24];  [2];  [25];  [26];  [15];  [27] « less
  1. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
  2. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  3. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  4. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  5. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  6. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD)/IPSL/CNRS
  7. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  8. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  9. Univ. de Toulouse (France). Lab. d'Aerologie, CNRS, UPS
  10. Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
  11. Indian Inst. of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)
  12. Univ. of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)
  13. Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  14. Univ. of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)
  15. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  16. Univ. of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan)
  17. Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
  18. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)
  19. Indian Inst. for Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)
  20. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD)/IPSL/CNRS
  21. Univ. de Toulouse (France). CNRM, Meteo-France, CNRS
  22. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  23. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  24. Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)
  25. Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  26. Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands)
  27. NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Science Foundation (NSF); Netherlands eScience Center (NLeSC)
OSTI Identifier:
1756382
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; 1830724; 1830729; 027.015.G03; 1852977; IA 1844590; 000057‐00414
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; convection; clouds; climate sensitivity; self-aggregation; radiative-convective equilibrium; cloud feedbacks

Citation Formats

Wing, Allison A., Stauffer, Catherine L, Becker, Tobias, Reed, Kevin A, Ahn, Min-Seop, Arnold, Nathan P., Bony, Sandrine, Branson, Mark, Bryan, George H., Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre, De Roode, Stephan R, Gayatri, Kulkarni, Hohenegger, Cathy, Hu, I-Kuan, Jansson, Fredrik, Jones, Todd R, Khairoutdinov, Marat, Kim, Daehyun, Martin, Zane K., Matsugishi, Shuhei, Medeiros, Brian, Miura, Hiroaki, Moon, Yumin, Müller, Sebastian K, Ohno, Tomoki, Popp, Max, Prabhakaran, Thara, Randall, David, Rios-Berrios, Rosimar, Rochetin, Nicolas, Roehrig, Romain, Romps, David M, Ruppert, James H., Satoh, Masaki, Silvers, Levi G, Singh, Martin S, Stevens, Bjorn, Tomassini, Lorenzo, van Heerwaarden, Chiel C., Wang, Shuguang, and Zhao, Ming. Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multimodel Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020ms002138.
Wing, Allison A., Stauffer, Catherine L, Becker, Tobias, Reed, Kevin A, Ahn, Min-Seop, Arnold, Nathan P., Bony, Sandrine, Branson, Mark, Bryan, George H., Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre, De Roode, Stephan R, Gayatri, Kulkarni, Hohenegger, Cathy, Hu, I-Kuan, Jansson, Fredrik, Jones, Todd R, Khairoutdinov, Marat, Kim, Daehyun, Martin, Zane K., Matsugishi, Shuhei, Medeiros, Brian, Miura, Hiroaki, Moon, Yumin, Müller, Sebastian K, Ohno, Tomoki, Popp, Max, Prabhakaran, Thara, Randall, David, Rios-Berrios, Rosimar, Rochetin, Nicolas, Roehrig, Romain, Romps, David M, Ruppert, James H., Satoh, Masaki, Silvers, Levi G, Singh, Martin S, Stevens, Bjorn, Tomassini, Lorenzo, van Heerwaarden, Chiel C., Wang, Shuguang, & Zhao, Ming. Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multimodel Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations. United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020ms002138
Wing, Allison A., Stauffer, Catherine L, Becker, Tobias, Reed, Kevin A, Ahn, Min-Seop, Arnold, Nathan P., Bony, Sandrine, Branson, Mark, Bryan, George H., Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre, De Roode, Stephan R, Gayatri, Kulkarni, Hohenegger, Cathy, Hu, I-Kuan, Jansson, Fredrik, Jones, Todd R, Khairoutdinov, Marat, Kim, Daehyun, Martin, Zane K., Matsugishi, Shuhei, Medeiros, Brian, Miura, Hiroaki, Moon, Yumin, Müller, Sebastian K, Ohno, Tomoki, Popp, Max, Prabhakaran, Thara, Randall, David, Rios-Berrios, Rosimar, Rochetin, Nicolas, Roehrig, Romain, Romps, David M, Ruppert, James H., Satoh, Masaki, Silvers, Levi G, Singh, Martin S, Stevens, Bjorn, Tomassini, Lorenzo, van Heerwaarden, Chiel C., Wang, Shuguang, and Zhao, Ming. Fri . "Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multimodel Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations". United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020ms002138. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1756382.
@article{osti_1756382,
title = {Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multimodel Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations},
author = {Wing, Allison A. and Stauffer, Catherine L and Becker, Tobias and Reed, Kevin A and Ahn, Min-Seop and Arnold, Nathan P. and Bony, Sandrine and Branson, Mark and Bryan, George H. and Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre and De Roode, Stephan R and Gayatri, Kulkarni and Hohenegger, Cathy and Hu, I-Kuan and Jansson, Fredrik and Jones, Todd R and Khairoutdinov, Marat and Kim, Daehyun and Martin, Zane K. and Matsugishi, Shuhei and Medeiros, Brian and Miura, Hiroaki and Moon, Yumin and Müller, Sebastian K and Ohno, Tomoki and Popp, Max and Prabhakaran, Thara and Randall, David and Rios-Berrios, Rosimar and Rochetin, Nicolas and Roehrig, Romain and Romps, David M and Ruppert, James H. and Satoh, Masaki and Silvers, Levi G and Singh, Martin S and Stevens, Bjorn and Tomassini, Lorenzo and van Heerwaarden, Chiel C. and Wang, Shuguang and Zhao, Ming},
abstractNote = {The Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Model Intercomparison Project (RCEMIP) is an intercomparison of multiple types of numerical models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE). RCE is an idealization of the tropical atmosphere that has long been used to study basic questions in climate science. Here, we employ RCE to investigate the role that clouds and convective activity play in determining cloud feedbacks, climate sensitivity, the state of convective aggregation, and the equilibrium climate. RCEMIP is unique among intercomparisons in its inclusion of a wide range of model types, including atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs), single column models (SCMs), cloud-resolving models (CRMs), large eddy simulations (LES), and global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs). The first results are presented from the RCEMIP ensemble of more than 30 models. While there are large differences across the RCEMIP ensemble in the representation of mean profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloudiness, in a majority of models anvil clouds rise, warm, and decrease in area coverage in response to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). Nearly all models exhibit self-aggregation in large domains and agree that self-aggregation acts to dry and warm the troposphere, reduce high cloudiness, and increase cooling to space. The degree of self-aggregation exhibits no clear tendency with warming. There is a wide range of climate sensitivities, but models with parameterized convection tend to have lower climate sensitivities than models with explicit convection. In models with parameterized convection, aggregated simulations have lower climate sensitivities than unaggregated simulations.},
doi = {10.1029/2020ms002138},
journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
number = 9,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Testing the Role of Radiation in Determining Tropical Cloud-Top Temperature
journal, September 2012


What favors convective aggregation and why?: WHAT FAVORS CONVECTIVE AGGREGATION
journal, July 2015

  • Muller, Caroline; Bony, Sandrine
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064260

Time-scales of adjustment to radiative-convective equilibrium in the tropical atmosphere
journal, October 1998

  • Tompkins, Adrian M.; Craig, George C.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 124, Issue 552
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712455208

Dynamic Radiative–Convective Equilibria Using GCM Column Physics
journal, January 2007

  • Held, Isaac M.; Zhao, Ming; Wyman, Bruce
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 64, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS3825.11

Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization
journal, January 2016

  • Eyring, Veronika; Bony, Sandrine; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016

Radiative–convective equilibrium model intercomparison project
journal, January 2018

  • Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-793-2018

DYAMOND: the DYnamics of the Atmospheric general circulation Modeled On Non-hydrostatic Domains
journal, September 2019

  • Stevens, Bjorn; Satoh, Masaki; Auger, Ludovic
  • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/s40645-019-0304-z

A reduced complexity framework to bridge the gap between AGCMs and cloud‐resolving models
journal, January 2016

  • Reed, Kevin A.; Medeiros, Brian
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066713

How may low‐cloud radiative properties simulated in the current climate influence low‐cloud feedbacks under global warming?
journal, October 2012


Detailed Investigation of the Self-Aggregation of Convection in Cloud-Resolving Simulations
journal, August 2012

  • Muller, Caroline J.; Held, Isaac M.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 69, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-0257.1

An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design
journal, April 2012

  • Taylor, Karl E.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1

The climate time scale in the approach to radiative-convective equilibrium: Radiative-Convective Time Scale
journal, October 2013

  • Cronin, Timothy W.; Emanuel, Kerry A.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/jame.20049

Large-Eddy Simulations of EUCLIPSE–GASS Lagrangian Stratocumulus-to-Cumulus Transitions: Mean State, Turbulence, and Decoupling
journal, June 2016

  • de Roode, Stephan R.; Sandu, Irina; van der Dussen, Johan J.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 73, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0215.1

A methodology for understanding and intercomparing atmospheric climate feedback processes in general circulation models
journal, January 1988

  • Cess, Robert D.; Potter, Gerald L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 93, Issue D7
  • DOI: 10.1029/JD093iD07p08305

The Tropical Water and Energy Cycles in a Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Equilibrium Climate
journal, March 1994


Single-Column Model Intercomparison for a Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer
journal, September 2005


Self-aggregation of convection in long channel geometry: Self-Aggregation in Channel Geometry
journal, September 2015

  • Wing, Allison A.; Cronin, Timothy W.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 142, Issue 694
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2628

The sensitivity of convective aggregation to diabatic processes in idealized radiative‐convective equilibrium simulations
journal, January 2016

  • Holloway, C. E.; Woolnough, S. J.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000511

Boundary Layer Diabatic Processes, the Virtual Effect, and Convective Self‐Aggregation
journal, September 2018

  • Yang, Da
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2017MS001261

Boundary Layer Height and Buoyancy Determine the Horizontal Scale of Convective Self-Aggregation
journal, February 2018


The Gap between Simulation and Understanding in Climate Modeling
journal, November 2005


Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: Role of updraft entrainment
journal, May 2017

  • Tompkins, Adrian M.; Semie, Addisu G.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000802

Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity
journal, March 2015

  • Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Frierson, Dargan M. W.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2398

Long-term behaviour of precipitating tropical cloud systems: A numerical study
journal, July 1996

  • Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 122, Issue 533
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712253302

Clouds, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity in a Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Channel Model: CLOUDS AND CLIMATE FEEDBACKS IN RCE
journal, December 2017

  • Cronin, Timothy W.; Wing, Allison A.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001111

Climate and climate change in a radiative-convective equilibrium version of ECHAM6: RCE WITH ECHAM6
journal, January 2013

  • Popke, D.; Stevens, B.; Voigt, A.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000191

Fine Vertical Resolution Radiative‐Convective Equilibrium Experiments: Roles of Turbulent Mixing on the High‐Cloud Response to Sea Surface Temperatures
journal, June 2019

  • Ohno, Tomoki; Satoh, Masaki; Noda, Akira
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001704

Radiative-convective disequilibrium
journal, April 1994


Testing the Fixed Anvil Temperature Hypothesis in a Cloud-Resolving Model
journal, May 2007

  • Kuang, Zhiming; Hartmann, Dennis L.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4124.1

Clausius–Clapeyron Scaling of CAPE from Analytical Solutions to RCE
journal, September 2016


Convective self-aggregation, cold pools, and domain size: AGGREGATION, COLD POOLS, AND DOMAIN SIZE
journal, March 2013

  • Jeevanjee, Nadir; Romps, David M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50204

Climate and climate sensitivity to changing CO 2 on an idealized land planet
journal, December 2014

  • Becker, Tobias; Stevens, Bjorn
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014MS000369

Physical mechanisms controlling self-aggregation of convection in idealized numerical modeling simulations: SELF-AGGREGATION MECHANISMS
journal, February 2014

  • Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry A.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000269

High cloud increase in a perturbed SST experiment with a global nonhydrostatic model including explicit convective processes
journal, July 2014

  • Tsushima, Yoko; Iga, Shin-ichi; Tomita, Hirofumi
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000301

An important constraint on tropical cloud - climate feedback: TROPICAL CLOUD-CLIMATE FEEDBACK
journal, October 2002

  • Hartmann, Dennis L.; Larson, Kristin
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015835

Marine low cloud sensitivity to an idealized climate change: The CGILS LES intercomparison: CGILS LES Intercomparison
journal, May 2013

  • Blossey, Peter N.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Zhang, Minghua
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/jame.20025

The Multiscale Impacts of Organized Convection in Global 2-D Cloud-Resolving Models
journal, August 2018

  • Brenowitz, N. D.; Majda, A. J.; Yang, Q.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001335

Simulation of a Stratocumulus-Topped Planetary Boundary Layer: Intercomparison among Different Numerical Codes
journal, February 1996


The Third GABLS Intercomparison Case for Evaluation Studies of Boundary-Layer Models. Part B: Results and Process Understanding
journal, March 2014

  • Bosveld, Fred C.; Baas, Peter; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 152, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-014-9919-1

Why is longwave cloud feedback positive?
journal, January 2010

  • Zelinka, Mark D.; Hartmann, Dennis L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue D16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JD013817

The CGILS experimental design to investigate low cloud feedbacks in general circulation models by using single-column and large-eddy simulation models: DESIGN OF LOW CLOUD FEEDBACK STUDY
journal, April 2012

  • Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000182

Single‐Column Model Simulations of Subtropical Marine Boundary‐Layer Cloud Transitions Under Weakening Inversions
journal, October 2017

  • Neggers, R. A. J.; Ackerman, A. S.; Angevine, W. M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001064

Physical mechanisms controlling the initiation of convective self-aggregation in a General Circulation Model: MECHANISMS OF INITIATION OF AGGREGATION
journal, December 2015

  • Coppin, David; Bony, Sandrine
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000571

Rotating radiative-convective equilibrium simulated by a cloud-resolving model: ROTATING RCE
journal, December 2013

  • Khairoutdinov, Marat; Emanuel, Kerry
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000253

Aerosol Indirect Effects on Tropical Convection Characteristics under Conditions of Radiative–Convective Equilibrium
journal, April 2011

  • van den Heever, Susan C.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Wood, Norman B.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 68, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JAS3603.1

Inferences from Simple Models of Slow, Convectively Coupled Processes
journal, January 2019


Subtropical Low Cloud Response to a Warmer Climate in a Superparameterized Climate Model. Part II: Column Modeling with a Cloud Resolving Model: COLUMN MODELING OF SUBTROPICAL LOW CLOUD RESPONSE
journal, March 2009

  • Blossey, Peter N.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wyant, Matthew C.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 1, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.8

Coupled radiative convective equilibrium simulations with explicit and parameterized convection: COUPLED RCE SIMULATIONS
journal, September 2016

  • Hohenegger, Cathy; Stevens, Bjorn
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000666

The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) contribution to CMIP6
journal, January 2017

  • Webb, Mark J.; Andrews, Timothy; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-359-2017

Radiative–convective equilibrium in a three-dimensional cloud-ensemble model
journal, July 1998

  • Tompkins, Adrian M.; Craig, George C.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 124, Issue 550
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712455013

Simplicity amid Complexity
journal, March 2014


Global Radiative–Convective Equilibrium in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 5
journal, May 2015

  • Reed, Kevin A.; Medeiros, Brian; Bacmeister, Julio T.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 72, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0268.1

Large-scale organization of tropical convection in two-dimensional explicit numerical simulations: Effects of interactive radiation
journal, October 2002

  • Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 128, Issue 585
  • DOI: 10.1256/qj.01.104

Numerical Experiments Concerning the Origin of Cloud Clusters in the Tropical Atmosphere [熱帯大気中のクラウドクラスターの起源に関する数値実験]
journal, January 1988

  • Nakajima, Kensuke; Matsuno, Taroh
  • Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, Vol. 66, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2151/jmsj1965.66.2_309

Model Hierarchies for Understanding Atmospheric Circulation
journal, May 2019

  • Maher, Penelope; Gerber, Edwin P.; Medeiros, Brian
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 57, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018RG000607

CGILS: Results from the first phase of an international project to understand the physical mechanisms of low cloud feedbacks in single column models: CGILS Results On Low Cloud Feedback
journal, December 2013

  • Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000246

FAT or FiTT: Are Anvil Clouds or the Tropopause Temperature Invariant?
journal, February 2019

  • Seeley, Jacob T.; Jeevanjee, Nadir; Romps, David M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080096

Sensitivity of Tropical Convection to Sea Surface Temperature in the Absence of Large-Scale Flow
journal, February 1999


Thermal Equilibrium of the Atmosphere with a Convective Adjustment
journal, July 1964


Convective Self-Aggregation in Numerical Simulations: A Review
journal, February 2017

  • Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry; Holloway, Christopher E.
  • Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 38, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10712-017-9408-4

Radiative–Convective Feedbacks in Idealized States of Radiative–Convective Equilibrium
journal, December 2008

  • Stephens, Graeme L.; van den Heever, Susan; Pakula, Lyle
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 65, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JAS2524.1

The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)
journal, February 2000


Re-Examining the First Climate Models: Climate Sensitivity of a Modern Radiative–Convective Equilibrium Model
journal, November 2019


An Analytical Model for Tropical Relative Humidity
journal, October 2014


Why does tropical convective available potential energy (CAPE) increase with warming?: WHY DOES CAPE INCREASE WITH WARMING?
journal, December 2015

  • Seeley, Jacob T.; Romps, David M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066199

The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use
journal, June 2002

  • Wagner, W.; Pruß, A.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 31, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1461829

Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount
journal, July 2016

  • Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Coppin, David
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1601472113

Influence of entrainment on the thermal stratification in simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium: ENTRAINMENT AND THERMAL STRATIFICATION
journal, August 2013

  • Singh, Martin S.; O'Gorman, Paul A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50796

DCMIP2016: a review of non-hydrostatic dynamical core design and intercomparison of participating models
journal, January 2017

  • Ullrich, Paul A.; Jablonowski, Christiane; Kent, James
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-4477-2017

A perspective on climate model hierarchies: MODEL HIERARCHIES
journal, August 2017

  • Jeevanjee, Nadir; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Hill, Spencer
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001038

Radiative-Convective Equilibrium with Explicit Two-Dimensional Moist Convection
journal, December 1993


Large-scale organization of tropical convection in two-dimensional explicit numerical simulations
journal, January 2001

  • Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 127, Issue 572
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712757211

Observational Evidence for Relationships between the Degree of Aggregation of Deep Convection, Water Vapor, Surface Fluxes, and Radiation
journal, October 2012


New Equations for the Sublimation Pressure and Melting Pressure of H 2 O Ice Ih
journal, December 2011

  • Wagner, Wolfgang; Riethmann, Thomas; Feistel, Rainer
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 40, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3657937

On the Interplay Between Convective Aggregation, Surface Temperature Gradients, and Climate Sensitivity
journal, December 2018

  • Coppin, David; Bony, Sandrine
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001406

A New Look at the Daily Cycle of Trade Wind Cumuli
journal, October 2019

  • Vial, Jessica; Vogel, Raphaela; Bony, Sandrine
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001746

Formation of Tropical Anvil Clouds by Slow Evaporation
journal, January 2019

  • Seeley, Jacob T.; Jeevanjee, Nadir; Langhans, Wolfgang
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080747

Intercomparison makes for a better climate model
journal, January 1997

  • Meehl, Gerald A.; Boer, George J.; Covey, Curt
  • Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 78, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1029/97EO00276

The lightness of water vapor helps to stabilize tropical climate
journal, May 2020


The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS)
journal, March 1993


Quantifying Climate Feedbacks Using Radiative Kernels
journal, July 2008

  • Soden, Brian J.; Held, Isaac M.; Colman, Robert
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI2110.1

On the Use of Cloud Forcing to Estimate Cloud Feedback
journal, October 2004


Cloud feedback mechanisms and their representation in global climate models: Cloud feedback mechanisms and their representation in GCMs
journal, May 2017

  • Ceppi, Paulo; Brient, Florent; Zelinka, Mark D.
  • Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/wcc.465

An Energy-Balance Analysis of Deep Convective Self-Aggregation above Uniform SST
journal, December 2005

  • Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Khairoutdinov, Marat
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 62, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS3614.1

Rewriting the Climatology of the Tropical North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea Atmosphere
journal, February 2011


Global-scale convective aggregation: Implications for the Madden-Julian Oscillation: GLOBAL-SCALE CONVECTIVE AGGREGATION
journal, October 2015

  • Arnold, Nathan P.; Randall, David A.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000498

Predictability of Mesoscale Rainfall in the Tropics
journal, February 1993


The tropical rain belts with an annual cycle and a continent model intercomparison project: TRACMIP
journal, December 2016

  • Voigt, Aiko; Biasutti, Michela; Scheff, Jacob
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000748

Imprint of the convective parameterization and sea‐surface temperature on large‐scale convective self‐aggregation
journal, May 2017

  • Becker, Tobias; Stevens, Bjorn; Hohenegger, Cathy
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000865

Increases in moist-convective updraught velocities with warming in radiative-convective equilibrium: Increases in Updraught Velocities with Warming
journal, June 2015

  • Singh, Martin S.; O'Gorman, Paul A.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 141, Issue 692
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2567

Self-Aggregation of Deep Convection and its Implications for Climate
journal, January 2019


Missing iris effect as a possible cause of muted hydrological change and high climate sensitivity in models
journal, April 2015

  • Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2414

High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6
journal, January 2016

  • Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-4185-2016

Radiative convective equilibrium as a framework for studying the interaction between convection and its large-scale environment: RCE, CONVECTION, AND DOMAIN SIZE
journal, August 2016

  • Silvers, Levi G.; Stevens, Bjorn; Mauritsen, Thorsten
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000629