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Title: Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems

Abstract

Renewable portfolio standards are targeting high levels of variable solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric distribution systems, which makes reliability more challenging to maintain for distribution system operators (DSOs). Distributed energy resources (DERs), including smart, connected appliances and PV inverters, represent responsive grid resources that can provide flexibility to support the DSO in actively managing their networks to facilitate reliability under extreme levels of solar PV. This flexibility can also be used to optimize system operations with respect to economic signals from wholesale energy and ancillary service markets. Here, we present a novel hierarchical scheme that actively controls behind-the-meter DERs to reliably manage each unbalanced distribution feeder and exploits the available flexibility to ensure reliable operation and economically optimizes the entire distribution network. Each layer of the scheme employs advanced optimization methods at different timescales to ensure that the system operates within both grid and device limits. The hierarchy is validated in a large-scale realistic simulation based on data from the industry. Simulation results show that coordination of flexibility improves both system reliability and economics, and enables greater penetration of solar PV. Discussion is also provided on the practical viability of the required communications and controls to implement the presented schememore » within a large DSO.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  4. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1756063
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-157505
Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; EE0008006
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; distributed energy resources; smart loads; flexibility; distribution system operator; distribution network; optimal power flow; control; large scale; solar energy

Citation Formats

Almassalkhi, Mads, Brahma, Sarnaduti, Nazir, Nawaf, Ossareh, Hamid, Racherla, Pavan, Kundu, Soumya, Nandanoori, Sai Pushpak, Ramachandran, Thiagarajan, Singhal, Ankit, Gayme, Dennice, Ji, Chengda, Mallada, Enrique, Shen, Yue, You, Pengcheng, and Anand, Dhananjay. Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399.
Almassalkhi, Mads, Brahma, Sarnaduti, Nazir, Nawaf, Ossareh, Hamid, Racherla, Pavan, Kundu, Soumya, Nandanoori, Sai Pushpak, Ramachandran, Thiagarajan, Singhal, Ankit, Gayme, Dennice, Ji, Chengda, Mallada, Enrique, Shen, Yue, You, Pengcheng, & Anand, Dhananjay. Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems. United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399
Almassalkhi, Mads, Brahma, Sarnaduti, Nazir, Nawaf, Ossareh, Hamid, Racherla, Pavan, Kundu, Soumya, Nandanoori, Sai Pushpak, Ramachandran, Thiagarajan, Singhal, Ankit, Gayme, Dennice, Ji, Chengda, Mallada, Enrique, Shen, Yue, You, Pengcheng, and Anand, Dhananjay. Thu . "Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems". United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1756063.
@article{osti_1756063,
title = {Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems},
author = {Almassalkhi, Mads and Brahma, Sarnaduti and Nazir, Nawaf and Ossareh, Hamid and Racherla, Pavan and Kundu, Soumya and Nandanoori, Sai Pushpak and Ramachandran, Thiagarajan and Singhal, Ankit and Gayme, Dennice and Ji, Chengda and Mallada, Enrique and Shen, Yue and You, Pengcheng and Anand, Dhananjay},
abstractNote = {Renewable portfolio standards are targeting high levels of variable solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric distribution systems, which makes reliability more challenging to maintain for distribution system operators (DSOs). Distributed energy resources (DERs), including smart, connected appliances and PV inverters, represent responsive grid resources that can provide flexibility to support the DSO in actively managing their networks to facilitate reliability under extreme levels of solar PV. This flexibility can also be used to optimize system operations with respect to economic signals from wholesale energy and ancillary service markets. Here, we present a novel hierarchical scheme that actively controls behind-the-meter DERs to reliably manage each unbalanced distribution feeder and exploits the available flexibility to ensure reliable operation and economically optimizes the entire distribution network. Each layer of the scheme employs advanced optimization methods at different timescales to ensure that the system operates within both grid and device limits. The hierarchy is validated in a large-scale realistic simulation based on data from the industry. Simulation results show that coordination of flexibility improves both system reliability and economics, and enables greater penetration of solar PV. Discussion is also provided on the practical viability of the required communications and controls to implement the presented scheme within a large DSO.},
doi = {10.3390/en13236399},
journal = {Energies (Basel)},
number = 23,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {12}
}

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