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Title: Ecosystem–scale biogeochemical fluxes from three bioenergy crop candidates: How energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus

Abstract

Perennial crops have been the focus of bioenergy research and development for their sustainability benefits associated with high soil carbon (C) and reduced nitrogen (N) requirements. However, perennial crops mature over several years and their sustainability benefits can be negated through land reversion. A photoperiod–sensitive energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) may provide an annual crop alternative more ecologically sustainable than maize (Zea mays) that can more easily integrate into crop rotations than perennials, such as miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). This study presents an ecosystem–scale comparison of C, N, water and energy fluxes from energy sorghum, maize and miscanthus during a typical growing season in the Midwest United States. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was highest for maize during the peak growing season at 21.83 g C m–2 day–1, followed by energy sorghum (17.04 g C m–2 day–1) and miscanthus (15.57 g C m–2 day–1). Maize also had the highest peak growing season evapotranspiration at 5.39 mm day–1, with energy sorghum and miscanthus at 3.81 and 3.61 mm day–1, respectively. Energy sorghum was the most efficient water user (WUE), while maize and miscanthus were comparatively similar (3.04, 1.75 and 1.89 g C mm–1 H2O, respectively). Maize albedo was lower than energy sorghum andmore » miscanthus (0.19, 0.26 and 0.24, respectively), but energy sorghum had a Bowen ratio closer to maize than miscanthus (0.12, 0.13 and 0.21, respectively). Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux was higher from maize and energy sorghum (8.86 and 12.04 kg N ha–1, respectively) compared with miscanthus (0.51 kg N ha–1), indicative of their different agronomic management. Furthermore, these results are an important first look at how energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus grown in the Midwest United States. This quantitative assessment is a critical component for calibrating biogeochemical and ecological models used to forecast bioenergy crop growth, productivity and sustainability.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Univ. of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)
  2. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  3. USDA/ARS, Urbana, IL (United States)
  4. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); USDA/ARS, Urbana, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation (CABBI), Urbana, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1755388
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0018420
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1757-1693
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; Bioenergy cropping systems; carbon; eddy covariance; light use efficiency; nitrogen; water use efficiency

Citation Formats

Moore, Caitlin E., Haden, Adam C., Burnham, Mark B., Kantola, Ilsa B., Gibson, Christy D., Blakely, Bethany J., Dracup, Evan C., Masters, Michael D., Yang, Wendy H., DeLucia, Evan H., and Bernacchi, Carl J.. Ecosystem–scale biogeochemical fluxes from three bioenergy crop candidates: How energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12788.
Moore, Caitlin E., Haden, Adam C., Burnham, Mark B., Kantola, Ilsa B., Gibson, Christy D., Blakely, Bethany J., Dracup, Evan C., Masters, Michael D., Yang, Wendy H., DeLucia, Evan H., & Bernacchi, Carl J.. Ecosystem–scale biogeochemical fluxes from three bioenergy crop candidates: How energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus. United States. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12788
Moore, Caitlin E., Haden, Adam C., Burnham, Mark B., Kantola, Ilsa B., Gibson, Christy D., Blakely, Bethany J., Dracup, Evan C., Masters, Michael D., Yang, Wendy H., DeLucia, Evan H., and Bernacchi, Carl J.. Tue . "Ecosystem–scale biogeochemical fluxes from three bioenergy crop candidates: How energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus". United States. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12788. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1755388.
@article{osti_1755388,
title = {Ecosystem–scale biogeochemical fluxes from three bioenergy crop candidates: How energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus},
author = {Moore, Caitlin E. and Haden, Adam C. and Burnham, Mark B. and Kantola, Ilsa B. and Gibson, Christy D. and Blakely, Bethany J. and Dracup, Evan C. and Masters, Michael D. and Yang, Wendy H. and DeLucia, Evan H. and Bernacchi, Carl J.},
abstractNote = {Perennial crops have been the focus of bioenergy research and development for their sustainability benefits associated with high soil carbon (C) and reduced nitrogen (N) requirements. However, perennial crops mature over several years and their sustainability benefits can be negated through land reversion. A photoperiod–sensitive energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) may provide an annual crop alternative more ecologically sustainable than maize (Zea mays) that can more easily integrate into crop rotations than perennials, such as miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). This study presents an ecosystem–scale comparison of C, N, water and energy fluxes from energy sorghum, maize and miscanthus during a typical growing season in the Midwest United States. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was highest for maize during the peak growing season at 21.83 g C m–2 day–1, followed by energy sorghum (17.04 g C m–2 day–1) and miscanthus (15.57 g C m–2 day–1). Maize also had the highest peak growing season evapotranspiration at 5.39 mm day–1, with energy sorghum and miscanthus at 3.81 and 3.61 mm day–1, respectively. Energy sorghum was the most efficient water user (WUE), while maize and miscanthus were comparatively similar (3.04, 1.75 and 1.89 g C mm–1 H2O, respectively). Maize albedo was lower than energy sorghum and miscanthus (0.19, 0.26 and 0.24, respectively), but energy sorghum had a Bowen ratio closer to maize than miscanthus (0.12, 0.13 and 0.21, respectively). Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux was higher from maize and energy sorghum (8.86 and 12.04 kg N ha–1, respectively) compared with miscanthus (0.51 kg N ha–1), indicative of their different agronomic management. Furthermore, these results are an important first look at how energy sorghum compares to maize and miscanthus grown in the Midwest United States. This quantitative assessment is a critical component for calibrating biogeochemical and ecological models used to forecast bioenergy crop growth, productivity and sustainability.},
doi = {10.1111/gcbb.12788},
journal = {Global Change Biology. Bioenergy},
number = 3,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {12}
}

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