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Title: Ship-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans

Abstract

Ambient concentrations of ice-forming particles measured during ship expeditions are collected and summarised with the aim of determining the spatial distribution and variability in ice nuclei in oceanic regions. The presented data from literature and previously unpublished data from over 23 months of ship-based measurements stretch from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean and include a circumnavigation of Antarctica. In comparison to continental observations, ship-based measurements of ambient ice nuclei show 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower mean concentrations. To quantify the geographical variability in oceanic areas, the concentration range of potential ice nuclei in different climate zones is analysed by meridionally dividing the expedition tracks into tropical, temperate and polar climate zones. We find that concentrations of ice nuclei in these meridional zones follow temperature spectra with similar slopes but vary in absolute concentration. Typically, the frequency with which specific concentrations of ice nuclei are observed at a certain temperature follows a log-normal distribution. A consequence of the log-normal distribution is that the mean concentration is higher than the most frequently measured concentration. Finally, the potential contribution of ship exhaust to the measured ice nuclei concentration on board research vessels is analysed as function of temperature. We find amore » sharp onset of the influence at approximately -36 °C but none at warmer temperatures that could bias ship-based measurements.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [3];  [5];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [3]; ORCiD logo [9];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]
  1. Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Finnish Meteorological Inst. (FMI), Helsinki (Finland)
  2. Elanora Heights, NSW (Autralia)
  3. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  4. Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany)
  5. National Inst. for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand)
  6. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)
  7. Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Deutscher Wetterdienst, Braunschweig (Germany)
  8. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  9. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (Switzlerland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); European Union (EU); German Research Foundation (DFG); Ace Foundation; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1751935
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0018929; SC0014354; 603445; 268020496-TRR 172; SAW-2016-TROPOS-2; STR 453/12-1; 1358495; AGS-1450760; AGS-1660486
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Welti, André, Bigg, E. Keith, DeMott, Paul J., Gong, Xianda, Hartmann, Markus, Harvey, Mike, Henning, Silvia, Herenz, Paul, Hill, Thomas J., Hornblow, Blake, Leck, Caroline, Löffler, Mareike, McCluskey, Christina S., Rauker, Anne Marie, Schmale, Julia, Tatzelt, Christian, van Pinxteren, Manuela, and Stratmann, Frank. Ship-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15191-2020.
Welti, André, Bigg, E. Keith, DeMott, Paul J., Gong, Xianda, Hartmann, Markus, Harvey, Mike, Henning, Silvia, Herenz, Paul, Hill, Thomas J., Hornblow, Blake, Leck, Caroline, Löffler, Mareike, McCluskey, Christina S., Rauker, Anne Marie, Schmale, Julia, Tatzelt, Christian, van Pinxteren, Manuela, & Stratmann, Frank. Ship-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans. United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15191-2020
Welti, André, Bigg, E. Keith, DeMott, Paul J., Gong, Xianda, Hartmann, Markus, Harvey, Mike, Henning, Silvia, Herenz, Paul, Hill, Thomas J., Hornblow, Blake, Leck, Caroline, Löffler, Mareike, McCluskey, Christina S., Rauker, Anne Marie, Schmale, Julia, Tatzelt, Christian, van Pinxteren, Manuela, and Stratmann, Frank. Tue . "Ship-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15191-2020. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1751935.
@article{osti_1751935,
title = {Ship-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans},
author = {Welti, André and Bigg, E. Keith and DeMott, Paul J. and Gong, Xianda and Hartmann, Markus and Harvey, Mike and Henning, Silvia and Herenz, Paul and Hill, Thomas J. and Hornblow, Blake and Leck, Caroline and Löffler, Mareike and McCluskey, Christina S. and Rauker, Anne Marie and Schmale, Julia and Tatzelt, Christian and van Pinxteren, Manuela and Stratmann, Frank},
abstractNote = {Ambient concentrations of ice-forming particles measured during ship expeditions are collected and summarised with the aim of determining the spatial distribution and variability in ice nuclei in oceanic regions. The presented data from literature and previously unpublished data from over 23 months of ship-based measurements stretch from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean and include a circumnavigation of Antarctica. In comparison to continental observations, ship-based measurements of ambient ice nuclei show 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower mean concentrations. To quantify the geographical variability in oceanic areas, the concentration range of potential ice nuclei in different climate zones is analysed by meridionally dividing the expedition tracks into tropical, temperate and polar climate zones. We find that concentrations of ice nuclei in these meridional zones follow temperature spectra with similar slopes but vary in absolute concentration. Typically, the frequency with which specific concentrations of ice nuclei are observed at a certain temperature follows a log-normal distribution. A consequence of the log-normal distribution is that the mean concentration is higher than the most frequently measured concentration. Finally, the potential contribution of ship exhaust to the measured ice nuclei concentration on board research vessels is analysed as function of temperature. We find a sharp onset of the influence at approximately -36 °C but none at warmer temperatures that could bias ship-based measurements.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-20-15191-2020},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 23,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {12}
}

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