skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on December 16, 2021

Title: A compact filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility: SENTINEL

Abstract

Sentinel is a 16-channel, filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer that has been developed to measure ~1 keV–20 keV x-ray emission generated by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. Unlike the large, fixed-port versions of this diagnostic that currently exist on the NIF (known as Dante), Sentinel is a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator compatible such that it can be fielded along the polar or equatorial lines-of-sight—an essential new capability for characterizing the often anisotropic x-ray emission from laser-driven sources. Here, we present the diagnostic design along with preliminary diode calibrations and performance results. The novel, small-form-factor x-ray diode design allows for ≳5×–25× increased channel areal density over that of Dante, simultaneously enabling improved diagnostic robustness and fidelity of spectral reconstructions. While the Sentinel diagnostic is anticipated to improve line-of-sight spectral characterization of x-ray sources for a wide variety of programs on the NIF, the compact and portable design is also attractive to small- and mid-scale facilities with limited diagnostic real estate.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Nevada National Security Site (NSS), Las Vegas, NV (United States)
  3. Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1736345
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-813698
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; 1021792
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 91; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; plasma physics

Citation Formats

Kemp, G. E., May, M. J., MacNeil, L. P., Allen, F. V., Brown, C. G., Christensen, K. S., Dutra, E. C., Esquivel, C. A., Martinez, A. N., Fisher, J. H., and Blue, B. E.. A compact filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility: SENTINEL. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0025841.
Kemp, G. E., May, M. J., MacNeil, L. P., Allen, F. V., Brown, C. G., Christensen, K. S., Dutra, E. C., Esquivel, C. A., Martinez, A. N., Fisher, J. H., & Blue, B. E.. A compact filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility: SENTINEL. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0025841
Kemp, G. E., May, M. J., MacNeil, L. P., Allen, F. V., Brown, C. G., Christensen, K. S., Dutra, E. C., Esquivel, C. A., Martinez, A. N., Fisher, J. H., and Blue, B. E.. Wed . "A compact filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility: SENTINEL". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0025841.
@article{osti_1736345,
title = {A compact filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility: SENTINEL},
author = {Kemp, G. E. and May, M. J. and MacNeil, L. P. and Allen, F. V. and Brown, C. G. and Christensen, K. S. and Dutra, E. C. and Esquivel, C. A. and Martinez, A. N. and Fisher, J. H. and Blue, B. E.},
abstractNote = {Sentinel is a 16-channel, filtered x-ray diode array spectrometer that has been developed to measure ~1 keV–20 keV x-ray emission generated by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. Unlike the large, fixed-port versions of this diagnostic that currently exist on the NIF (known as Dante), Sentinel is a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator compatible such that it can be fielded along the polar or equatorial lines-of-sight—an essential new capability for characterizing the often anisotropic x-ray emission from laser-driven sources. Here, we present the diagnostic design along with preliminary diode calibrations and performance results. The novel, small-form-factor x-ray diode design allows for ≳5×–25× increased channel areal density over that of Dante, simultaneously enabling improved diagnostic robustness and fidelity of spectral reconstructions. While the Sentinel diagnostic is anticipated to improve line-of-sight spectral characterization of x-ray sources for a wide variety of programs on the NIF, the compact and portable design is also attractive to small- and mid-scale facilities with limited diagnostic real estate.},
doi = {10.1063/5.0025841},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 12,
volume = 91,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 16, 2021
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Radiative Shocks in Astrophysics and the Laboratory
journal, July 2005


Temporal and spectral deconvolution of data from diamond, photoconductive devices
journal, October 2004

  • Knauer, J. P.; Gindele, N. C.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 75, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1785274

The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega
journal, November 2014

  • Pérez, F.; Kemp, G. E.; Regan, S. P.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4891054

Flat field anomalies in an x-ray charge coupled device camera measured using a Manson x-ray source
journal, October 2008

  • Haugh, M. J.; Schneider, M. B.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 79, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2966457

Efficient laser-induced 6-8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets
journal, August 2012

  • Pérez, F.; Kay, J. J.; Patterson, J. R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4740076

Multi-keV x-ray source development experiments on the National Ignition Facility
journal, August 2010

  • Fournier, K. B.; May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3458904

Omega Dante soft x-ray power diagnostic component calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source
journal, October 2004

  • Campbell, K. M.; Weber, F. A.; Dewald, E. L.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 75, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1789603

Stacked, filtered multi-channel X-ray diode array
conference, August 2015

  • MacNeil, L. P.; Dutra, E. C.; Compton, S. M.
  • SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2189117

Experimental layout for the realization of an X-ray plasma source driven by a Nd:YAG laser for biological and medical applications
journal, June 2008

  • Palladino, L.; Limongi, T.; Gualtieri, G.
  • Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, Vol. 163, Issue 4-6
  • DOI: 10.1080/10420150701780615

Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurements
journal, October 2010

  • May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3475385

Enhancement of X-Ray Power from a Z Pinch Using Nested-Wire Arrays
journal, November 1998


Solid-density plasma characterization with x-ray scattering on the 200J Janus laser
journal, October 2006

  • Neumayer, P.; Gregori, G.; Ravasio, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2235648

Advances in NLTE modeling for integrated simulations
journal, January 2010


Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility
journal, June 2015

  • May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4922751

Design of the National Ignition Facility diagnostic instrument manipulator
journal, January 2001

  • Hibbard, W. J.; Landon, M. D.; Vergino, M. D.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 72, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1316758

Dante soft x-ray power diagnostic for National Ignition Facility
journal, October 2004

  • Dewald, E. L.; Campbell, K. M.; Turner, R. E.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 75, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1788872

Different methods of reconstructing spectra from filtered x-ray diode measurements
journal, October 2008

  • Seifter, Achim; Kyrala, George A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 79, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2957935

Charge yield for cobalt-60 and 10-keV X-ray irradiations of MOS devices
journal, January 1991

  • Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schwank, J. R.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 38, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1109/23.124092

Mirrored low-energy channel for the MiniXRD
conference, August 2015

  • Dutra, E. C.; MacNeil, L. P.; Compton, S. M.
  • SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2188709

Use of a priori spectral information in the measurement of x-ray flux with filtered diode arrays
journal, October 2015

  • Marrs, R. E.; Widmann, K.; Brown, G. V.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 86, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4934542

A genetic algorithm approach for reconstructing spectral content from filtered x-ray diode array spectrometers
journal, August 2020

  • Kemp, G. E.; Rubery, M. S.; Harris, C. D.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 91, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/5.0019059

X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility
journal, August 2016

  • Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; Yeoman, M. F.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4960501

X‐ray damage to optical components using a laser‐plasma source
journal, November 1993

  • Elton, R. C.; Billings, D. ‐M.; Grun, J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 74, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.354250

Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses
journal, August 2000

  • Neutze, Richard; Wouts, Remco; van der Spoel, David
  • Nature, Vol. 406, Issue 6797
  • DOI: 10.1038/35021099

X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition
journal, July 2008

  • Dewald, E. L.; Rosen, M.; Glenzer, S. H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2943700

A Bow Shock Nebula around a Compact X-Ray Source in the Supernova Remnant IC 443
journal, June 2001

  • Olbert, Charles M.; Clearfield, Christopher R.; Williams, Nikolas E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 554, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/321708

Enhanced accuracy of x-ray spectra reconstruction from filtered diode array measurements by adding a time integrated spectrometer
journal, April 2017

  • Ehrlich, Y.; Cohen, S.; Frank, Y.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4980151

Simulation study of 3–5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser
journal, May 2015

  • Kemp, G. E.; Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4921250

Demonstration of a long pulse X-ray source at the National Ignition Facility
journal, April 2017

  • May, M. J.; Opachich, Y. P.; Kemp, G. E.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4979172

Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities
journal, August 2010


Three-dimensional HYDRA simulations of National Ignition Facility targets
journal, May 2001

  • Marinak, M. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Gentile, N. A.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1356740