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Title: From core collapse to superluminous: the rates of massive stellar explosions from the Palomar Transient Factory

Abstract

ABSTRACT We present measurements of the local core-collapse supernova (CCSN) rate using SN discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We use a Monte Carlo simulation of hundreds of millions of SN light-curve realizations coupled with the detailed PTF survey detection efficiencies to forward model the SN rates in PTF. Using a sample of 86 CCSNe, including 26 stripped-envelope SNe (SESNe), we show that the overall CCSN volumetric rate is $$r^\mathrm{CC}_v=9.10_{-1.27}^{+1.56}\times 10^{-5}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\, \text{Mpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$$ at 〈z〉 = 0.028, and the SESN volumetric rate is $$r^\mathrm{SE}_v=2.41_{-0.64}^{+0.81}\times 10^{-5}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\, \text{Mpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$$. We further measure a volumetric rate for hydrogen-free superluminous SNe (SLSNe-I) using eight events at z ≤ 0.2 of $$r^\mathrm{SLSN-I}_v=35_{-13}^{+25}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\text{Gpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$$, which represents the most precise SLSN-I rate measurement to date. Using a simple cosmic star formation history to adjust these volumetric rate measurements to the same redshift, we measure a local ratio of SLSN-I to SESN of $${\sim}1/810^{+1500}_{-94}$$, and of SLSN-I to all CCSN types of $${\sim}1/3500^{+2800}_{-720}$$. However, using host galaxy stellar mass as a proxy for metallicity, we also show that this ratio is strongly metallicity dependent: in low-mass (logM* < 9.5 M⊙) galaxies, which are the only environments that host SLSN-I in our sample, we measure an SLSN-I to SESN fraction of $$1/300^{+380}_{-170}$$ and $$1/1700^{+1800}_{-720}$$ for all CCSN. We further investigate the SN rates a function of host galaxy stellar mass, and show that the specific rates of all CCSNe decrease with increasing stellar mass.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11]
  1. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  2. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK, DARK, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Lyngbyvej 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
  3. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK, DISCnet Centre for Doctoral Training, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  4. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  5. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK, Université de Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique des Deux Infinis, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
  6. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3411, USA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA
  7. Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA, Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
  8. Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
  9. Cahill Centre for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  10. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
  11. Department of Astronomy/Mount Laguna Observatory, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92812-1221, USA, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1735681
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 500 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Frohmaier, C., Angus, C. R., Vincenzi, M., Sullivan, M., Smith, M., Nugent, P. E., Cenko, S. B., Gal-Yam, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Law, N. M., and Quimby, R. M.. From core collapse to superluminous: the rates of massive stellar explosions from the Palomar Transient Factory. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3607.
Frohmaier, C., Angus, C. R., Vincenzi, M., Sullivan, M., Smith, M., Nugent, P. E., Cenko, S. B., Gal-Yam, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Law, N. M., & Quimby, R. M.. From core collapse to superluminous: the rates of massive stellar explosions from the Palomar Transient Factory. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3607
Frohmaier, C., Angus, C. R., Vincenzi, M., Sullivan, M., Smith, M., Nugent, P. E., Cenko, S. B., Gal-Yam, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Law, N. M., and Quimby, R. M.. Sat . "From core collapse to superluminous: the rates of massive stellar explosions from the Palomar Transient Factory". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3607.
@article{osti_1735681,
title = {From core collapse to superluminous: the rates of massive stellar explosions from the Palomar Transient Factory},
author = {Frohmaier, C. and Angus, C. R. and Vincenzi, M. and Sullivan, M. and Smith, M. and Nugent, P. E. and Cenko, S. B. and Gal-Yam, A. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Law, N. M. and Quimby, R. M.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We present measurements of the local core-collapse supernova (CCSN) rate using SN discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We use a Monte Carlo simulation of hundreds of millions of SN light-curve realizations coupled with the detailed PTF survey detection efficiencies to forward model the SN rates in PTF. Using a sample of 86 CCSNe, including 26 stripped-envelope SNe (SESNe), we show that the overall CCSN volumetric rate is $r^\mathrm{CC}_v=9.10_{-1.27}^{+1.56}\times 10^{-5}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\, \text{Mpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$ at 〈z〉 = 0.028, and the SESN volumetric rate is $r^\mathrm{SE}_v=2.41_{-0.64}^{+0.81}\times 10^{-5}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\, \text{Mpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$. We further measure a volumetric rate for hydrogen-free superluminous SNe (SLSNe-I) using eight events at z ≤ 0.2 of $r^\mathrm{SLSN-I}_v=35_{-13}^{+25}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\text{Gpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$, which represents the most precise SLSN-I rate measurement to date. Using a simple cosmic star formation history to adjust these volumetric rate measurements to the same redshift, we measure a local ratio of SLSN-I to SESN of ${\sim}1/810^{+1500}_{-94}$, and of SLSN-I to all CCSN types of ${\sim}1/3500^{+2800}_{-720}$. However, using host galaxy stellar mass as a proxy for metallicity, we also show that this ratio is strongly metallicity dependent: in low-mass (logM* < 9.5 M⊙) galaxies, which are the only environments that host SLSN-I in our sample, we measure an SLSN-I to SESN fraction of $1/300^{+380}_{-170}$ and $1/1700^{+1800}_{-720}$ for all CCSN. We further investigate the SN rates a function of host galaxy stellar mass, and show that the specific rates of all CCSNe decrease with increasing stellar mass.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/staa3607},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 500,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {11}
}

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https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3607

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