skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Bismuth Detection in Alkaline Electrolyte via Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Battery Separator Evaluation

Abstract

Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been widely used for the detection of several heavy metal ions in neutral and acidic solution, in many cases employing electrodes and/or solutions incorporating Bi. In this work we demonstrate that Bi(OH)4- ion concentration can be measured in highly alkaline 8.5 M KOH solution using ASV. The addition of Pb in similar concentrations to the Bi(OH)4- being measured is shown to improve both the sensitivity and precision of the method. Here, when the Pb additive is employed, a formal limit of detection of 8.5 ppb is achieved, compared to 17.3 ppb when the Pb additive is not used. Due to the use of Bi additives in alkaline battery chemistries, it follows that separators which limit Bi(OH)4- diffusion into the bulk electrolyte and away from the electrodes are of interest. For this purpose, we utilize ASV to determine Bi(OH)4- diffusion rates through Celgard 3501, cellophane 350P00, and Nafion 211. Bi(OH)4- crossover rates, as determined by ASV, are shown to be repeatable and consistent with expectations from the known separator structure.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque NM 87185-0734 USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity (OE); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1735677
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1786453; OSTI ID: 1827608
Report Number(s):
SAND-2021-12121J
Journal ID: ISSN 1040-0397
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003525
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Electroanalysis
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Electroanalysis Journal Volume: 33 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1040-0397
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English
Subject:
Anodic Stripping Voltammetry; Bismuth Detection; Diffusion; Battery Separators

Citation Formats

Arnot, David J., and Lambert, Timothy N.. Bismuth Detection in Alkaline Electrolyte via Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Battery Separator Evaluation. Germany: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.202060412.
Arnot, David J., & Lambert, Timothy N.. Bismuth Detection in Alkaline Electrolyte via Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Battery Separator Evaluation. Germany. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.202060412
Arnot, David J., and Lambert, Timothy N.. Mon . "Bismuth Detection in Alkaline Electrolyte via Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Battery Separator Evaluation". Germany. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.202060412.
@article{osti_1735677,
title = {Bismuth Detection in Alkaline Electrolyte via Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Battery Separator Evaluation},
author = {Arnot, David J. and Lambert, Timothy N.},
abstractNote = {Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been widely used for the detection of several heavy metal ions in neutral and acidic solution, in many cases employing electrodes and/or solutions incorporating Bi. In this work we demonstrate that Bi(OH)4- ion concentration can be measured in highly alkaline 8.5 M KOH solution using ASV. The addition of Pb in similar concentrations to the Bi(OH)4- being measured is shown to improve both the sensitivity and precision of the method. Here, when the Pb additive is employed, a formal limit of detection of 8.5 ppb is achieved, compared to 17.3 ppb when the Pb additive is not used. Due to the use of Bi additives in alkaline battery chemistries, it follows that separators which limit Bi(OH)4- diffusion into the bulk electrolyte and away from the electrodes are of interest. For this purpose, we utilize ASV to determine Bi(OH)4- diffusion rates through Celgard 3501, cellophane 350P00, and Nafion 211. Bi(OH)4- crossover rates, as determined by ASV, are shown to be repeatable and consistent with expectations from the known separator structure.},
doi = {10.1002/elan.202060412},
journal = {Electroanalysis},
number = 3,
volume = 33,
place = {Germany},
year = {2020},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.202060412

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Design Rules for Membranes from Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity for Crossover-free Aqueous Electrochemical Devices
journal, December 2019


An inexpensive magnetic stirrer
journal, February 1973

  • Ellis, J.; Kanamori, S.
  • Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 50, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/ed050p137

Bismuth-film electrodes: recent developments and potentialities for electroanalysis
journal, April 2005


Negatively charged nanoporous membrane for a dendrite-free alkaline zinc-based flow battery with long cycle life
journal, September 2018


Bismuth-Coated Carbon Electrodes for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
journal, July 2000

  • Wang, Joseph; Lu, Jianmin; Hocevar, Samo B.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 72, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac000108x

Recent Advances in Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Bismuth-Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes
journal, January 2006

  • Švancara, Ivan; Baldrianová, Lucie; Tesařová, Eva
  • Electroanalysis, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/elan.200503391

Evaluation of a ceramic separator for use in rechargeable alkaline Zn/MnO2 batteries
journal, August 2018


State of Understanding of Nafion
journal, October 2004

  • Mauritz, Kenneth A.; Moore, Robert B.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 104, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr0207123

Determination of bismuth in lead and in a lead-lithium alloy by stripping voltammetric assay
journal, January 1993

  • Judex, P.; Heissler, S.; Adelhelm, C.
  • Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 347-347, Issue 10-11
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00635467

Bismuth Enables the Formation of Disordered Birnessite in Rechargeable Alkaline Batteries
journal, July 2020

  • Bruck, Andrea M.; Kim, Matthew A.; Ma, Lu
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/aba075

Stripping Analysis at Bismuth-Based Electrodes
journal, July 2008


A detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of a bismuth-film glassy carbon electrode for trace metal analysis
journal, April 2018


Effect of ZnO-Saturated Electrolyte on Rechargeable Alkaline Zinc Batteries at Increased Depth-of-Discharge
journal, January 2020

  • Lim, Matthew B.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ruiz, Elijah I.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/ab7e90

Stripping Analysis at Bismuth Electrodes: A Review
journal, August 2005


A calcium hydroxide interlayer as a selective separator for rechargeable alkaline Zn/MnO2 batteries
journal, August 2017


An In Situ Synchrotron Study of Zinc Anode Planarization by a Bismuth Additive
journal, December 2013

  • Gallaway, Joshua W.; Gaikwad, Abhinav M.; Hertzberg, Benjamin
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 161, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.037403jes

Bismuth oxide as an excellent anode additive for inhibiting dendrite formation in zinc-air secondary batteries
journal, October 2018


Effect of Bi(III) concentration on the stripping voltammetric response of in situ bismuth-coated carbon paste and gold electrodes
journal, October 2006


A study on the electroanalytical performance of a bismuth film-coated and Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solutions
journal, March 2010


Addressing the practicalities of anodic stripping voltammetry for heavy metal detection: a tutorial review
journal, January 2019

  • Borrill, Alexandra J.; Reily, Nicole E.; Macpherson, Julie V.
  • The Analyst, Vol. 144, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/C9AN01437C

Bismuth electrodes in contemporary electroanalysis
journal, June 2017

  • Jovanovski, Vasko; Hočevar, Samo B.; Ogorevc, Božidar
  • Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2017.07.008

Regenerable Cu-intercalated MnO2 layered cathode for highly cyclable energy dense batteries
journal, March 2017

  • Yadav, Gautam G.; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Turney, Damon E.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14424

Copper Sensing in Alkaline Electrolyte Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry by Means of a Lead Mediator
journal, October 2017

  • Duay, Jonathon; Ortiz-Santiago, Joed E.; Lambert, Timothy N.
  • Electroanalysis, Vol. 29, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/elan.201700526

Insights into the anodic stripping voltammetric behavior of bismuth film electrodes
journal, April 2001


An all-aqueous redox flow battery with unprecedented energy density
journal, January 2018

  • Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Xu, Pan
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8EE00686E

Electrochemical Synthesis of Metal Oxides and Hydroxides
journal, May 2000

  • Therese, G. Helen Annal; Kamath, P. Vishnu
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm990447a

Stripping voltammetry for the determination of trace metal speciation and in-situ measurements of trace metal distributions in marine waters
journal, November 1999