skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Direct laser writing of volumetric gradient index lenses and waveguides

Abstract

Abstract Direct laser writing (DLW) has been shown to render 3D polymeric optical components, including lenses, beam expanders, and mirrors, with submicrometer precision. However, these printed structures are limited to the refractive index and dispersive properties of the photopolymer. Here, we present the subsurface controllable refractive index via beam exposure (SCRIBE) method, a lithographic approach that enables the tuning of the refractive index over a range of greater than 0.3 by performing DLW inside photoresist-filled nanoporous silicon and silica scaffolds. Adjusting the laser exposure during printing enables 3D submicron control of the polymer infilling and thus the refractive index and chromatic dispersion. Combining SCRIBE’s unprecedented index range and 3D writing accuracy has realized the world’s smallest (15 µm diameter) spherical Luneburg lens operating at visible wavelengths. SCRIBE’s ability to tune the chromatic dispersion alongside the refractive index was leveraged to render achromatic doublets in a single printing step, eliminating the need for multiple photoresins and writing sequences. SCRIBE also has the potential to form multicomponent optics by cascading optical elements within a scaffold. As a demonstration, stacked focusing structures that generate photonic nanojets were fabricated inside porous silicon. Finally, an all-pass ring resonator was coupled to a subsurface 3D waveguide. Themore » measured quality factor of 4600 at 1550 nm suggests the possibility of compact photonic systems with optical interconnects that traverse multiple planes. SCRIBE is uniquely suited for constructing such photonic integrated circuits due to its ability to integrate multiple optical components, including lenses and waveguides, without additional printed supports.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1730956
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0019140
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Light, Science & Applications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Light, Science & Applications Journal Volume: 9 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2047-7538
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Ocier, Christian R., Richards, Corey A., Bacon-Brown, Daniel A., Ding, Qing, Kumar, Raman, Garcia, Tanner J., van de Groep, Jorik, Song, Jung-Hwan, Cyphersmith, Austin J., Rhode, Andrew, Perry, Andrea N., Littlefield, Alexander J., Zhu, Jinlong, Xie, Dajie, Gao, Haibo, Messinger, Jonah F., Brongersma, Mark L., Toussaint, Jr., Kimani C., Goddard, Lynford L., and Braun, Paul V.. Direct laser writing of volumetric gradient index lenses and waveguides. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00431-3.
Ocier, Christian R., Richards, Corey A., Bacon-Brown, Daniel A., Ding, Qing, Kumar, Raman, Garcia, Tanner J., van de Groep, Jorik, Song, Jung-Hwan, Cyphersmith, Austin J., Rhode, Andrew, Perry, Andrea N., Littlefield, Alexander J., Zhu, Jinlong, Xie, Dajie, Gao, Haibo, Messinger, Jonah F., Brongersma, Mark L., Toussaint, Jr., Kimani C., Goddard, Lynford L., & Braun, Paul V.. Direct laser writing of volumetric gradient index lenses and waveguides. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00431-3
Ocier, Christian R., Richards, Corey A., Bacon-Brown, Daniel A., Ding, Qing, Kumar, Raman, Garcia, Tanner J., van de Groep, Jorik, Song, Jung-Hwan, Cyphersmith, Austin J., Rhode, Andrew, Perry, Andrea N., Littlefield, Alexander J., Zhu, Jinlong, Xie, Dajie, Gao, Haibo, Messinger, Jonah F., Brongersma, Mark L., Toussaint, Jr., Kimani C., Goddard, Lynford L., and Braun, Paul V.. Thu . "Direct laser writing of volumetric gradient index lenses and waveguides". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00431-3.
@article{osti_1730956,
title = {Direct laser writing of volumetric gradient index lenses and waveguides},
author = {Ocier, Christian R. and Richards, Corey A. and Bacon-Brown, Daniel A. and Ding, Qing and Kumar, Raman and Garcia, Tanner J. and van de Groep, Jorik and Song, Jung-Hwan and Cyphersmith, Austin J. and Rhode, Andrew and Perry, Andrea N. and Littlefield, Alexander J. and Zhu, Jinlong and Xie, Dajie and Gao, Haibo and Messinger, Jonah F. and Brongersma, Mark L. and Toussaint, Jr., Kimani C. and Goddard, Lynford L. and Braun, Paul V.},
abstractNote = {Abstract Direct laser writing (DLW) has been shown to render 3D polymeric optical components, including lenses, beam expanders, and mirrors, with submicrometer precision. However, these printed structures are limited to the refractive index and dispersive properties of the photopolymer. Here, we present the subsurface controllable refractive index via beam exposure (SCRIBE) method, a lithographic approach that enables the tuning of the refractive index over a range of greater than 0.3 by performing DLW inside photoresist-filled nanoporous silicon and silica scaffolds. Adjusting the laser exposure during printing enables 3D submicron control of the polymer infilling and thus the refractive index and chromatic dispersion. Combining SCRIBE’s unprecedented index range and 3D writing accuracy has realized the world’s smallest (15 µm diameter) spherical Luneburg lens operating at visible wavelengths. SCRIBE’s ability to tune the chromatic dispersion alongside the refractive index was leveraged to render achromatic doublets in a single printing step, eliminating the need for multiple photoresins and writing sequences. SCRIBE also has the potential to form multicomponent optics by cascading optical elements within a scaffold. As a demonstration, stacked focusing structures that generate photonic nanojets were fabricated inside porous silicon. Finally, an all-pass ring resonator was coupled to a subsurface 3D waveguide. The measured quality factor of 4600 at 1550 nm suggests the possibility of compact photonic systems with optical interconnects that traverse multiple planes. SCRIBE is uniquely suited for constructing such photonic integrated circuits due to its ability to integrate multiple optical components, including lenses and waveguides, without additional printed supports.},
doi = {10.1038/s41377-020-00431-3},
journal = {Light, Science & Applications},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00431-3

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications
journal, June 2004

  • Deubel, Markus; von Freymann, Georg; Wegener, Martin
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1155

Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: towards GRIN microoptics: Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography
journal, October 2015

  • Žukauskas, Albertas; Matulaitienė, Ieva; Paipulas, Domas
  • Laser & Photonics Reviews, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201500170

Ultrafast laser nanostructuring of photopolymers: A decade of advances
journal, December 2013


Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures
journal, April 1997


Spatial control of photonic nanojets
journal, January 2016


Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives
journal, June 2016


Spatial beam intensity shaping using phase masks on single-mode optical fibers fabricated by femtosecond direct laser writing
journal, January 2016


Gradient-index optics: a review
journal, January 1980


Alignment-free integration of apertures and nontransparent hulls into 3D-printed micro-optics
journal, January 2018

  • Toulouse, Andrea; Thiele, Simon; Giessen, Harald
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.43.005283

Writing waveguides inside monolithic crystalline silicon with nanosecond laser pulses
journal, January 2016


Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation
journal, November 2000

  • Lu, Y. F.; Zhang, L.; Song, W. D.
  • Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters, Vol. 72, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1134/1.1339899

Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences
journal, November 2003

  • Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Webb, Watt W.
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 21, Issue 11, p. 1369-1377
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt899

Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres
journal, June 2016

  • Gissibl, Timo; Thiele, Simon; Herkommer, Alois
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11763

3D-printed eagle eye: Compound microlens system for foveated imaging
journal, February 2017

  • Thiele, Simon; Arzenbacher, Kathrin; Gissibl, Timo
  • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602655

Analysis of tuning of Bragg wavelength of photowritten fiber Bragg gratings during the inscription process using a biprism
journal, January 2007


Optically anisotropic porous silicon microlenses with tunable refractive indexes and birefringence profiles
journal, January 2020

  • Ocier, Christian R.; Richards, Corey A.; Bacon-Brown, Daniel A.
  • Optical Materials Express, Vol. 10, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1364/OME.385013

On the chromatic aberration of microlenses
journal, January 2006

  • Ruffieux, Patrick; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter
  • Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.14.004687

Photonic Nanojets
journal, September 2009

  • Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.
  • Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1166/jctn.2009.1254

Active aberration- and point-spread-function control in direct laser writing
journal, January 2012

  • Waller, Erik H.; Renner, Michael; von Freymann, Georg
  • Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.024949

Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser
journal, January 1996


In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration
journal, March 2018


Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique
journal, January 2004


Realization of a narrowband single wavelength microring mirror
journal, August 2011

  • Arbabi, Amir; Kang, Young Mo; Lu, Ching-Ying
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3633111

Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography
journal, September 2016


Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer
journal, August 2009


Three-Dimensional μ-Printing: An Enabling Technology
journal, September 2015

  • Hohmann, Judith K.; Renner, Michael; Waller, Erik H.
  • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500328

High-throughput fabrication of micrometer-sized compound parabolic mirror arrays by using parallel laser direct-write processing
journal, July 2015


Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator
journal, January 2009

  • McKinnon, W. R.; Xu, D. X.; Storey, C.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.17.018971

Photonic devices prepared by embossing in PDMS
journal, February 2017


Multiphoton Direct Laser Writing and 3D Imaging of Polymeric Freestanding Architectures for Cell Colonization
journal, May 2017

  • Accardo, Angelo; Blatché, Marie-Charline; Courson, Rémi
  • Small, Vol. 13, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700621

Tunable Visibly Transparent Optics Derived from Porous Silicon
journal, March 2017


Three-dimensional Luneburg lens at optical frequencies: Three-dimensional Luneburg lens at optical frequencies
journal, June 2016

  • Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Zheng, Mei-Ling
  • Laser & Photonics Reviews, Vol. 10, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600051

Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths
journal, March 2010


Micro-Optics Fabrication on Top of Optical Fibers Using Two-Photon Lithography
journal, April 2010

  • Liberale, Carlo; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Candeloro, Patrizio
  • IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 22, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2010.2040986

Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit: 3D optical lithography off limits
journal, March 2012


Direct laser writing: Principles and materials for scaffold 3D printing
journal, January 2015

  • Selimis, Alexandros; Mironov, Vladimir; Farsari, Maria
  • Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 132
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2014.10.001

Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy
journal, May 2014

  • Prevedel, Robert; Yoon, Young-Gyu; Hoffmann, Maximilian
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2964

Singlet gradient index lens for deep in vivo multiphoton microscopy
journal, January 2012