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Title: Electrically Tunable Metasurface with Independent Frequency and Amplitude Modulations

Abstract

Metasurfaces with actively tunable features are highly demanded for advanced applications in electronic and electromagnetic systems. However, realizing independent dual-tunability remains challenging and requires more efforts. Here, we present an active metasurface where the magnitude and frequency of the resonant absorption can be continuously and independently tuned through application of voltage biases. Such a dual-tunability is accomplished at microwave frequencies by combining a varactor-loaded high-impedance surface and a graphene-based sandwich structure. By electrically controlling the Fermi energy of graphene and the capacitance of varactor diodes, we experimentally demonstrate the independent shifting of the working frequency from 3.41 to 4.55 GHz and tuning of the reflection amplitude between –3 and –30 dB, which is in excellent agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. We further employed an equivalent lumped circuit model to elucidate the mechanism of the dual-tunability resulting from the graphene-based sandwich structure and the active high-impedance surface. We speculate that such a dual-tunability scheme can be potentially extended to terahertz and optical regimes by employing different active/dynamical tuning methods and materials integration, thereby enabling a variety of practical applications.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Dept. of Electronic Engineering
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chongqing (China). Chongqing Inst. of Green and Intelligent Technology
  3. Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; ITMO Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Information Optical Technologies Centre
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC); Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai; Russian Science Foundation (RSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1688785
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-29711
Journal ID: ISSN 2330-4022
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; 61701303; 11574308; 17ZR1414300; 19-13-00332
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Photonics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2330-4022
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; metasurfaces; electromagnetic radiation; electrical properties; two dimensional materials; chemical structure

Citation Formats

Zhang, Jin, Wei, Xingzhan, Rukhlenko, Ivan D., Chen, Hou-Tong, and Zhu, Weiren. Electrically Tunable Metasurface with Independent Frequency and Amplitude Modulations. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01532.
Zhang, Jin, Wei, Xingzhan, Rukhlenko, Ivan D., Chen, Hou-Tong, & Zhu, Weiren. Electrically Tunable Metasurface with Independent Frequency and Amplitude Modulations. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01532
Zhang, Jin, Wei, Xingzhan, Rukhlenko, Ivan D., Chen, Hou-Tong, and Zhu, Weiren. Mon . "Electrically Tunable Metasurface with Independent Frequency and Amplitude Modulations". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01532. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1688785.
@article{osti_1688785,
title = {Electrically Tunable Metasurface with Independent Frequency and Amplitude Modulations},
author = {Zhang, Jin and Wei, Xingzhan and Rukhlenko, Ivan D. and Chen, Hou-Tong and Zhu, Weiren},
abstractNote = {Metasurfaces with actively tunable features are highly demanded for advanced applications in electronic and electromagnetic systems. However, realizing independent dual-tunability remains challenging and requires more efforts. Here, we present an active metasurface where the magnitude and frequency of the resonant absorption can be continuously and independently tuned through application of voltage biases. Such a dual-tunability is accomplished at microwave frequencies by combining a varactor-loaded high-impedance surface and a graphene-based sandwich structure. By electrically controlling the Fermi energy of graphene and the capacitance of varactor diodes, we experimentally demonstrate the independent shifting of the working frequency from 3.41 to 4.55 GHz and tuning of the reflection amplitude between –3 and –30 dB, which is in excellent agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. We further employed an equivalent lumped circuit model to elucidate the mechanism of the dual-tunability resulting from the graphene-based sandwich structure and the active high-impedance surface. We speculate that such a dual-tunability scheme can be potentially extended to terahertz and optical regimes by employing different active/dynamical tuning methods and materials integration, thereby enabling a variety of practical applications.},
doi = {10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01532},
journal = {ACS Photonics},
number = 1,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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