skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2021

Title: Microstructural development in DED stainless steels: applying welding models to elucidate the impact of processing and alloy composition

Abstract

Austenitic stainless steel microstructures produced by directed energy deposition (DED)are analogous to those developed during welding, particularly high energy density welding. To better understand microstructural development during DED, theories of microstructural evolution,which have been established to contextualize weld microstructures, are applied in this study to microstructural development in DED austenitic stainless steels. Phenomenological welding models that describe the development of oxide inclusions, compositional microsegregation, ferrite,matrix austenite grains, and dislocation substructures are utilized to clarify microstructural evolution during deposition of austenitic stainless steels. Two different alloys, 304L and 316L, arecompared to demonstrate the broad applicability of this framework for understanding microstmctural development during the DED process. Despite differences in grain morphology and solidification mode for these two alloys (which can be attributed to compositional differences),similar tensile properties are achieved. It is the fine-scale compositional segregation and dislocation structures that ultimately determine the strength of these materials. The evolution of microsegregation and dislocation structures is shown to be dependent on the rapid solidification and thermomechanical history of the DED processing method and not the composition of the starting material.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1670759
Report Number(s):
SAND2020-8480J
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461; 689971
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Science; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Smith, Thale R., Sugar, Joshua Daniel, San Marchi, Christopher W., and Schoenung, Julie M. Microstructural development in DED stainless steels: applying welding models to elucidate the impact of processing and alloy composition. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-05232-y.
Smith, Thale R., Sugar, Joshua Daniel, San Marchi, Christopher W., & Schoenung, Julie M. Microstructural development in DED stainless steels: applying welding models to elucidate the impact of processing and alloy composition. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-05232-y
Smith, Thale R., Sugar, Joshua Daniel, San Marchi, Christopher W., and Schoenung, Julie M. Mon . "Microstructural development in DED stainless steels: applying welding models to elucidate the impact of processing and alloy composition". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-05232-y.
@article{osti_1670759,
title = {Microstructural development in DED stainless steels: applying welding models to elucidate the impact of processing and alloy composition},
author = {Smith, Thale R. and Sugar, Joshua Daniel and San Marchi, Christopher W. and Schoenung, Julie M.},
abstractNote = {Austenitic stainless steel microstructures produced by directed energy deposition (DED)are analogous to those developed during welding, particularly high energy density welding. To better understand microstructural development during DED, theories of microstructural evolution,which have been established to contextualize weld microstructures, are applied in this study to microstructural development in DED austenitic stainless steels. Phenomenological welding models that describe the development of oxide inclusions, compositional microsegregation, ferrite,matrix austenite grains, and dislocation substructures are utilized to clarify microstructural evolution during deposition of austenitic stainless steels. Two different alloys, 304L and 316L, arecompared to demonstrate the broad applicability of this framework for understanding microstmctural development during the DED process. Despite differences in grain morphology and solidification mode for these two alloys (which can be attributed to compositional differences),similar tensile properties are achieved. It is the fine-scale compositional segregation and dislocation structures that ultimately determine the strength of these materials. The evolution of microsegregation and dislocation structures is shown to be dependent on the rapid solidification and thermomechanical history of the DED processing method and not the composition of the starting material.},
doi = {10.1007/s10853-020-05232-y},
journal = {Journal of Materials Science},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2021
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Understanding the Microstructure and Properties of Components Fabricated by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
journal, January 2000

  • Griffith, M. L.; Ensz, M. T.; Puskar, J. D.
  • MRS Proceedings, Vol. 625
  • DOI: 10.1557/PROC-625-9

Thermal Behavior and Microstructure Evolution during Laser Deposition with Laser-Engineered Net Shaping: Part II. Experimental Investigation and Discussion
journal, June 2008

  • Zheng, B.; Zhou, Y.; Smugeresky, J. E.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 39, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-008-9566-6

Control of shape and performance for direct laser fabrication of precision large-scale metal parts with 316L Stainless Steel
journal, February 2013


Characterization of stainless steel parts by Laser Metal Deposition Shaping
journal, March 2014


Microporosity effects on cyclic plasticity and fatigue of LENS™-processed steel
journal, June 2010


Effects of process time interval and heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructural properties of direct laser deposited 316L stainless steel
journal, September 2015

  • Yadollahi, Aref; Shamsaei, Nima; Thompson, Scott M.
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 644
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.07.056

Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part
journal, February 2015

  • Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 46, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11663-015-0310-5

Microstructure and mechanical behavior of laser additive manufactured AISI 316 stainless steel stringers
journal, March 2014


Solidification in direct metal deposition by LENS processing
journal, September 2001


Microstructures of Laser Deposited 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel
journal, January 2000

  • Brooks, John A.; Headley, Thomas J.; Robino, Charles V.
  • MRS Proceedings, Vol. 625
  • DOI: 10.1557/PROC-625-21

The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel fabricated using laser engineered net shaping
journal, November 2016

  • Ziętala, Michał; Durejko, Tomasz; Polański, Marek
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 677
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.09.028

Anomalous Annealing Response of Directed Energy Deposited Type 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel
journal, January 2018


A new Bcc-Fcc orientation relationship observed between ferrite and austenite in solidification structures of steels
journal, January 2002


In Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of the Influence of Microstructure on the Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 304L Stainless Steel
journal, October 2017

  • Brown, D. W.; Adams, D. P.; Balogh, L.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 48, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-017-4330-4

Correlation between solidification parameters and weld microstructures
journal, January 1989


Microstructural development and solidification cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel welds
journal, January 1991


Strengthening mechanisms in directed energy deposited austenitic stainless steel
journal, February 2019


The influence of inclusion chemical composition on weld metal microstructure
journal, September 1987

  • Liu, S.; Olson, D. L.
  • Journal of Materials Engineering, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02834144

Inclusion nucleated ductile fracture in stainless steel
journal, May 1989


Selective laser melting of stainless steel 316L with low porosity and high build rates
journal, August 2016


Hardened austenite steel with columnar sub-grain structure formed by laser melting
journal, February 2015


Quantification of tensile damage evolution in additive manufactured austenitic stainless steels
journal, March 2016


Catalyst effects in heterogeneous nucleation of acicular ferrite
journal, March 1995

  • Grong, Ø; Kluken, A. O.; Nylund, H. K.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02663903

Calculation of inclusion formation in low-alloy-steel welds
journal, September 1996


Modeling of inclusion growth and dissolution in the weld pool
journal, February 2000

  • Hong, T.; Debroy, T.; Babu, S. S.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 31, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11663-000-0141-9

Effect of high energy density welding processes on inclusion and microstructure formation in steel welds
journal, April 1999

  • Babu, S. S.; Reidenbach, F.; David, S. A.
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1179/136217199101537581

Development of macro- and microstructures of carbon–manganese low alloy steel welds: inclusion formation
journal, February 1995


Effects of Oxygen Additions to Argon Shielding Gas on GTA Weld Shape
journal, January 2003


On the oxidation of stainless steel particles in the plasma jet
journal, April 2006


Mechanisms of inclusion formation in Al−Ti−Si−Mn deoxidized steel weld metals
journal, August 1989

  • Kluken, A. O.; Grong, Ø.
  • Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 20, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02665492

The mechanism of acicular ferrite in weld deposits
journal, June 2004


Thermal Behavior and Microstructural Evolution during Laser Deposition with Laser-Engineered Net Shaping: Part I. Numerical Calculations
journal, June 2008

  • Zheng, B.; Zhou, Y.; Smugeresky, J. E.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 39, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-008-9557-7

Additive manufacturing of metals: a brief review of the characteristic microstructures and properties of steels, Ti-6Al-4V and high-entropy alloys
journal, January 2017

  • Gorsse, Stéphane; Hutchinson, Christopher; Gouné, Mohamed
  • Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, Vol. 18, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1080/14686996.2017.1361305

Stability of cellular microstructure in laser powder bed fusion of 316L stainless steel
journal, January 2019

  • Scipioni Bertoli, Umberto; MacDonald, Benjamin E.; Schoenung, Julie M.
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 739
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2018.10.051

Microstructural development during solidification of stainless steel alloys
journal, October 1989

  • Elmer, J. W.; Allen, S. M.; Eagar, T. W.
  • Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 20, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02650298

STEM Analysis of primary austenite solidified stainless steel welds
journal, January 1983

  • Brooks, J. A.; Williams, J. C.; Thompson, A. W.
  • Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02643733

Numerical simulation of equiaxed grain formation in weld solidification
journal, January 2003


3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys
journal, September 2017

  • Martin, John H.; Yahata, Brennan D.; Hundley, Jacob M.
  • Nature, Vol. 549, Issue 7672
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature23894

Epitaxy and Microstructure Evolution in Metal Additive Manufacturing
journal, July 2016


De la curiosité infantile à la science
journal, January 2011


Microstructural formation in longitudinal bicrystal welds
journal, June 1993

  • Rappaz, M.; Vitek, J. M.; David, S. A.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 24, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02668211

Analysis of solidification microstructures in Fe-Ni-Cr single-crystal welds
journal, June 1990

  • Rappaz, M.; David, S. A.; Vitek, J. M.
  • Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 21, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02672593

Development of microstructures in Fe−15Ni−15Cr single crystal electron beam welds
journal, June 1989

  • Rappaz, M.; David, S. A.; Vitek, J. M.
  • Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 20, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02650147

Improving build quality in Directed Energy Deposition by cross-hatching
journal, September 2019

  • Terrassa, Katherine L.; Smith, Thale R.; Jiang, Sen
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 765
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.138269

Finite Element Modeling and Simulation of Welding. part 2: Improved Material Modeling
journal, March 2001


Welding residual stresses in ferritic power plant steels
journal, September 2007

  • Francis, J. A.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Withers, P. J.
  • Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 23, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1179/174328407X213116

On the evolution of local material properties and residual stress in a three-pass SA508 steel weld
journal, May 2012


Spatially Resolved Materials Property Data From a Uniaxial Cross-Weld Tensile Test
journal, October 2009

  • Turski, M.; Smith, M. C.; Bouchard, P. J.
  • Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 131, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4000196

Effect of low transformation temperature weld filler metal on welding residual stress
journal, July 2010


A thermal-mechanical finite element workflow for directed energy deposition additive manufacturing process modeling
journal, May 2018


Development of Nanocrystalline 304L Stainless Steel by Large Strain Cold Working
journal, April 2015

  • Odnobokova, Marina; Belyakov, Andrey; Kaibyshev, Rustam
  • Metals, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3390/met5020656

On the Hall-Petch relationship and substructural evolution in type 316L stainless steel
journal, November 1995