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Title: Tin-based ionic chaperone phases to improve low temperature molten sodium–NaSICON interfaces

Abstract

High temperature operation of molten sodium batteries impacts cost, reliability, and lifetime, and has limited the widespread adoption of these grid-scale energy storage technologies. Poor charge transfer and high interfacial resistance between molten sodium and solid-state electrolytes, however, prevents the operation of molten sodium batteries at low temperatures. In this study, in situ formation of tin-based chaperone phases on solid state NaSICON ion conductor surfaces is shown in this work to greatly improve charge transfer and lower interfacial resistance in sodium symmetric cells operated at 110 °C at current densities up to an aggressive 50 mA cm–2. It is shown that static wetting testing, as measured by the contact angle of molten sodium on NaSICON, does not accurately predict battery performance due to the dynamic formation of a chaperone NaSn phase during cycling. This work demonstrates the promise of sodium intermetallic-forming coatings for the advancement of low temperature molten sodium batteries by improved mating of sodium–NaSICON surfaces and reduced interfacial resistance.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity (OE); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1670195
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1645153
Report Number(s):
SAND-2020-6822J
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488; 687127
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 33; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Gross, Martha M., Small, Leo J., Peretti, Amanda S., Percival, Stephen J., Rodriguez, Mark A., and Spoerke, Erik D.. Tin-based ionic chaperone phases to improve low temperature molten sodium–NaSICON interfaces. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ta03571h.
Gross, Martha M., Small, Leo J., Peretti, Amanda S., Percival, Stephen J., Rodriguez, Mark A., & Spoerke, Erik D.. Tin-based ionic chaperone phases to improve low temperature molten sodium–NaSICON interfaces. United States. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ta03571h
Gross, Martha M., Small, Leo J., Peretti, Amanda S., Percival, Stephen J., Rodriguez, Mark A., and Spoerke, Erik D.. Wed . "Tin-based ionic chaperone phases to improve low temperature molten sodium–NaSICON interfaces". United States. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ta03571h. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1670195.
@article{osti_1670195,
title = {Tin-based ionic chaperone phases to improve low temperature molten sodium–NaSICON interfaces},
author = {Gross, Martha M. and Small, Leo J. and Peretti, Amanda S. and Percival, Stephen J. and Rodriguez, Mark A. and Spoerke, Erik D.},
abstractNote = {High temperature operation of molten sodium batteries impacts cost, reliability, and lifetime, and has limited the widespread adoption of these grid-scale energy storage technologies. Poor charge transfer and high interfacial resistance between molten sodium and solid-state electrolytes, however, prevents the operation of molten sodium batteries at low temperatures. In this study, in situ formation of tin-based chaperone phases on solid state NaSICON ion conductor surfaces is shown in this work to greatly improve charge transfer and lower interfacial resistance in sodium symmetric cells operated at 110 °C at current densities up to an aggressive 50 mA cm–2. It is shown that static wetting testing, as measured by the contact angle of molten sodium on NaSICON, does not accurately predict battery performance due to the dynamic formation of a chaperone NaSn phase during cycling. This work demonstrates the promise of sodium intermetallic-forming coatings for the advancement of low temperature molten sodium batteries by improved mating of sodium–NaSICON surfaces and reduced interfacial resistance.},
doi = {10.1039/d0ta03571h},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 33,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {8}
}

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