Fastion physics in SPARC
Abstract
Potential loss of energetic ions including alphas and radiofrequency tail ions due to classical orbit effects and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities (MHD) are central physics issues in the design and experimental physics programme of the SPARC tokamak. The expected loss of fusion alpha power due to rippleinduced transport is computed for the SPARC tokamak design by the ASCOT and SPIRAL orbitsimulation codes, to assess the expected surface heating of plasmafacing components. We find good agreement between the ASCOT and SPIRAL simulation results not only in integrated quantities (fraction of alpha power loss) but also in the spatial, temporal and pitchangle dependence of the losses. If the toroidal field (TF) coils are wellaligned, the SPARC edge ripple is small (0.15–0.30 %), the computed rippleinduced alpha power loss is small ( ~0.25% ) and the corresponding peak surface power density is acceptable ( 244 kW m^{2} ). However, the ripple and rippleinduced losses increase strongly if the TF coils are assumed to suffer increasing magnitudes of misalignment. Surface heat loads may become problematic if the TF coil misalignment approaches the centimetre level. Rippleinduced losses of the energetic ion tail driven by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating are not expected to generate significantmore »
 Authors:

 Commonwealth Fusion Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)
 Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
 Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center
 Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland)
 Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE; Commonwealth Fusion Systems; National Science Foundation (NSF); Academy of Finland
 Contributing Org.:
 INFUSE programme
 OSTI Identifier:
 1668281
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC0205CH11231; RPP005; 1122374; 324759
 Resource Type:
 Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 Journal of Plasma Physics
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 00223778
 Publisher:
 Cambridge University Press
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 fusion plasma; plasma simulation; plasma confinement
Citation Formats
Scott, S. D., Kramer, G. J., Tolman, E. A., Snicker, A., Varje, J., Särkimäki, K., Wright, J. C., and RodriguezFernandez, P. Fastion physics in SPARC. United States: N. p., 2020.
Web. doi:10.1017/s0022377820001087.
Scott, S. D., Kramer, G. J., Tolman, E. A., Snicker, A., Varje, J., Särkimäki, K., Wright, J. C., & RodriguezFernandez, P. Fastion physics in SPARC. United States. doi:10.1017/s0022377820001087.
Scott, S. D., Kramer, G. J., Tolman, E. A., Snicker, A., Varje, J., Särkimäki, K., Wright, J. C., and RodriguezFernandez, P. Tue .
"Fastion physics in SPARC". United States. doi:10.1017/s0022377820001087. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1668281.
@article{osti_1668281,
title = {Fastion physics in SPARC},
author = {Scott, S. D. and Kramer, G. J. and Tolman, E. A. and Snicker, A. and Varje, J. and Särkimäki, K. and Wright, J. C. and RodriguezFernandez, P.},
abstractNote = {Potential loss of energetic ions including alphas and radiofrequency tail ions due to classical orbit effects and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities (MHD) are central physics issues in the design and experimental physics programme of the SPARC tokamak. The expected loss of fusion alpha power due to rippleinduced transport is computed for the SPARC tokamak design by the ASCOT and SPIRAL orbitsimulation codes, to assess the expected surface heating of plasmafacing components. We find good agreement between the ASCOT and SPIRAL simulation results not only in integrated quantities (fraction of alpha power loss) but also in the spatial, temporal and pitchangle dependence of the losses. If the toroidal field (TF) coils are wellaligned, the SPARC edge ripple is small (0.15–0.30 %), the computed rippleinduced alpha power loss is small ( ~0.25% ) and the corresponding peak surface power density is acceptable ( 244 kW m2 ). However, the ripple and rippleinduced losses increase strongly if the TF coils are assumed to suffer increasing magnitudes of misalignment. Surface heat loads may become problematic if the TF coil misalignment approaches the centimetre level. Rippleinduced losses of the energetic ion tail driven by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating are not expected to generate significant wall or limiter heating in the nominal SPARC plasma scenario. Because the expected classical fastion losses are small, SPARC will be able to observe and study fastion redistribution due to MHD including sawteeth and Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). SPARC's parameter space for AE physics even at moderate Q is shown to reasonably overlap that of the demonstration power plant ARC (Sorbom et al., Fusion Engng Des., vol. 100, 2015, p. 378), and thus measurements of AE mode amplitude, spectrum and associated fastion transport in SPARC would provide relevant guidance about AE behaviour expected in ARC.},
doi = {10.1017/s0022377820001087},
journal = {Journal of Plasma Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}
Works referenced in this record:
A description of the fullparticleorbitfollowing SPIRAL code for simulating fastion experiments in tokamaks
journal, January 2013
 Kramer, G. J.; Budny, R. V.; Bortolon, A.
 Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 55, Issue 2
Comparison of fusion alpha performance in JET advanced scenario and Hmode plasmas
journal, November 2008
 Asunta, O.; KurkiSuonio, T.; Tala, T.
 Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 50, Issue 12
The role of alpha particles in tokamak reactors
journal, June 1980
 Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 20, Issue 6
Physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in burning plasmas
journal, March 2016
 Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
 Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 88, Issue 1
Observation of betainduced Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIIID tokamak
journal, August 1993
 Heidbrink, W. W.; Strait, E. J.; Chu, M. S.
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 71, Issue 6
Mitigation of Alfvénic activity by 3D magnetic perturbations on NSTX
journal, July 2016
 Kramer, G. J.; Bortolon, A.; Ferraro, N. M.
 Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 58, Issue 8
Excitation of high‐ n toroidicity‐induced shear Alfvén eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks
journal, November 1992
 Fu, G. Y.; Cheng, C. Z.
 Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 4, Issue 11
Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit calculation for plasmas of arbitrary cross section
journal, January 1984
 White, R. B.; Chance, M. S.
 Physics of Fluids, Vol. 27, Issue 10
Interpretation of recent power width measurements in JET MkIIGB ELMy Hmodes
journal, May 2002
 Fundamenski, W.; Sipilä, S.; Matthews, G. F.
 Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 44, Issue 6
Toroidal Alfvén eigenmode‐induced ripple trapping
journal, August 1995
 White, R. B.; Fredrickson, E.; Darrow, D.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, Issue 8
Excitation of the toroidicity‐induced shear Alfvén eigenmode by fusion alpha particles in an ignited tokamak
journal, October 1989
 Fu, G. Y.; Van Dam, J. W.
 Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 1, Issue 10
Study of stochastic toroidal field ripple losses of charged fusion products at the midplane of TFTR
journal, March 1993
 Boivin, R. L.; Zweben, S. J.; White, R. B.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 33, Issue 3
Fast ion transport during applied 3D magnetic perturbations on DIIID
journal, June 2015
 Van Zeeland, M. A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Grierson, B. A.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 55, Issue 7
Neoclassical diffusion arising from magneticfield ripples in Tokamaks
journal, March 1973
 Connor, J. W.; Hastie, R. J.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 13, Issue 2
ARC: A compact, highfield, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets
journal, November 2015
 Sorbom, B. N.; Ball, J.; Palmer, T. R.
 Fusion Engineering and Design, Vol. 100
Volumepreserving algorithm for secular relativistic dynamics of charged particles
journal, April 2015
 Zhang, Ruili; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 4
ASCOT simulations of fast ion power loads to the plasmafacing components in ITER
journal, August 2009
 KurkiSuonio, T.; Asunta, O.; Hellsten, T.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 49, Issue 9
Fastion effects during test blanket module simulation experiments in DIIID
journal, September 2011
 Kramer, G. J.; Budny, B. V.; Ellis, R.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 51, Issue 10
Nonlinear waveparticle interactions and fast ion loss induced by multiple Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIIID tokamak
journal, May 2014
 Chen, Xi; Kramer, G. J.; Heidbrink, W. W.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 54, Issue 8
Orbitfollowing fusion alpha wall load simulation for ITER scenario 4 including full orbit effects
journal, September 2012
 Snicker, A.; Sipilä, S.; KurkiSuonio, T.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 52, Issue 9
Ripple‐induced energetic particle loss in tokamaks
journal, August 1996
 White, R. B.; Goldston, R. J.; Redi, M. H.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 3, Issue 8
Redistribution of high energy alpha particles due to sawteeth with partial reconnection
journal, March 2013
 Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; GarcíaMartínez, P. L.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 53, Issue 4
Simulations of fast ion wall loads in ASDEX Upgrade in the presence of magnetic perturbations due to ELMmitigation coils
journal, September 2012
 Asunta, O.; Äkäslompolo, S.; KurkiSuonio, T.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 52, Issue 9
Theory of Alfvénslow frequency gaps and discovery of Alfvénslow eigenmodes in tokamaks
journal, August 2019
 Cheng, C. Z.; Kramer, G. J.; Podesta, M.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, Issue 8
Collisional stochastic ripple diffusion of alpha particles and beam ions on TFTR
journal, October 1995
 Redi, M. H.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; White, R. B.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 35, Issue 10
Study of thermonuclear Alfv n instabilities in next step burning plasma proposals
journal, July 2003
 Gorelenkov, N. N.; Berk, H. L.; Budny, R.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 43, Issue 7
Basic physics of Alfvén instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas
journal, May 2008
 Heidbrink, W. W.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 5
Confinement of HighEnergy Trapped Particles in Tokamaks
journal, August 1981
 Goldston, R. J.; White, R. B.; Boozer, A. H.
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 47, Issue 9
Fastwave heating of a twocomponent plasma
journal, October 1975
 Stix, T. H.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 15, Issue 5
Development and validation of a predictive model for the pedestal height
journal, May 2009
 Snyder, P. B.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 5
Predictions of core plasma performance for the SPARC tokamak
journal, September 2020
 RodriguezFernandez, P.; Howard, N. T.; Greenwald, M. J.
 Journal of Plasma Physics, Vol. 86, Issue 5
Chapter 5: Physics of energetic ions
journal, June 2007
 Fasoli, A.; Gormenzano, C.; Berk, H. L.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 47, Issue 6
Enhanced Localized EnergeticIon Losses Resulting from SinglePass Interactions with Alfvén Eigenmodes
journal, February 2013
 Chen, X.; Austin, M. E.; Fisher, R. K.
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 110, Issue 6
Hamiltonian theory of adiabatic motion of relativistic charged particles
journal, September 2007
 Tao, Xin; Chan, Anthony A.; Brizard, Alain J.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 9
Systematic linearstability assessment of Alfvén eigenmodes in the presence of fusion αparticles for ITERlike equilibria
journal, June 2015
 Rodrigues, P.; Figueiredo, A.; Ferreira, J.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 55, Issue 8
Alpha particle physics in a tokamak burning plasma experiment
journal, May 2002
 Heidbrink, W. W.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 9, Issue 5
Dependence of alphaparticledriven Alfvén eigenmode linear stability on device magnetic field strength and consequences for nextgeneration tokamaks
journal, March 2019
 Tolman, E. A.; Loureiro, N. F.; Rodrigues, P.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 59, Issue 4
Saturation of Alfvén modes in tokamak plasmas investigated by Hamiltonian mapping techniques
journal, March 2017
 Briguglio, S.; Schneller, M.; Wang, X.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 57, Issue 7
Kinetic theory of lowfrequency Alfvén modes in tokamaks
journal, November 1996
 Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu; Santoro, Robert A.
 Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 38, Issue 11
The CASTORK Code, Recent Developments and Applications
journal, February 2015
 Nabais, F.; Borba, D.; Coelho, R.
 Plasma Science and Technology, Vol. 17, Issue 2
Energetic particle physics in fusion research in preparation for burning plasma experiments
journal, November 2014
 Gorelenkov, N. N.; Pinches, S. D.; Toi, K.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 54, Issue 12
A guidingcenter Fokker–Planck collision operator for nonuniform magnetic fields
journal, September 2004
 Brizard, Alain J.
 Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 9
Simulation of localized fastion heat loads in test blanket module simulation experiments on DIIID
journal, November 2013
 Kramer, G. J.; McLean, A.; Brooks, N.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 53, Issue 12
Modelling TF ripple loss of alpha particles in TFTR DT experiments
journal, December 1995
 Redi, M. H.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 35, Issue 12
Fast ion power loads on ITER first wall structures in the presence of NTMs and microturbulence
journal, July 2011
 KurkiSuonio, T.; Asunta, O.; Hirvijoki, E.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 51, Issue 8
Stability of Alfvén gap modes in burning plasmas
journal, June 1992
 Betti, R.; Freidberg, J. P.
 Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 4, Issue 6
High fusion performance from deuteriumtritium plasmas in JET
journal, February 1999
 Keilhacker, M.; Gibson, A.; Gormezano, C.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 39, Issue 2
Ripple modifications to alpha transport in tokamaks
journal, October 2018
 Catto, Peter J.
 Journal of Plasma Physics, Vol. 84, Issue 5
Overview of the SPARC tokamak
journal, September 2020
 Creely, A. J.; Greenwald, M. J.; Ballinger, S. B.
 Journal of Plasma Physics, Vol. 86, Issue 5
Effect of the magnetic field ripple on diffusion in Tokamaks
journal, December 1972
 Stringer, T. E.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 12, Issue 6
Effect of the European design of TBMs on ITER wall loads due to fast ions in the baseline (15 MA), hybrid (12.5 MA), steadystate (9 MA) and halffield (7.5 MA) scenarios
journal, October 2016
 KurkiSuonio, T.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Särkimäki, K.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 56, Issue 11
Introduction to the interaction between energetic particles and Alfven eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
journal, December 2018
 Todo, Y.
 Reviews of Modern Plasma Physics, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Effects of q ( r ) on the alpha particle ripple loss in TFTR
journal, May 1998
 Zweben, S. J.; Darrow, D. S.; Batha, S. H.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 38, Issue 5
Rippletrapped loss of neutralbeaminjected fast ions in JT60U
journal, November 1992
 Tobita, K.; Tani, K.; Neyatani, Y.
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 69, Issue 21
Power loads to ITER first wall structures due to fusion alphas in a nonaxisymmetric magnetic field including the presence of MHD modes
journal, August 2013
 Snicker, A.; Hirvijoki, E.; KurkiSuonio, T.
 Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 53, Issue 9