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Title: System Strength and Inertia Constrained Optimal Generator Dispatch Under High Renewable Penetration

Abstract

System strength and inertia inherently provided by synchronous generators (SGs) empower a power system to ride through voltage and power disturbances. The requirements of system strength and inertia were not enforced in the National Electricity Market (NEM) of Australia since SGs dominated the generation fleet in the past. However, increasing wind and solar generation continuously displaces SGs and consequently reduces system strength and inertia in the NEM. This paper proposes a formulation of system strength and inertia constrained optimal generator dispatch to reassure NEM operational security in light of emerging high renewable penetration. A fault current iterative solver is developed to evaluate system strength, in which current limitation and voltage control logics of inverter-based generators, and fault current contribution from VAR compensators are properly modelled in the phasor domain. The system strength contribution factor of an SG is defined to linearize system strength constraint for unit commitment (UC). System and sub-network inertia constraints are also formulated for UC to limit the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) in the event of generator/interconnector trip. We report the proposed generator dispatch formulation can fully meet system strength and inertia requirements in the NEM.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)
  2. Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Water Power Technologies Office (EE-4W); Australian Government
OSTI Identifier:
1665820
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-77461
Journal ID: ISSN 1949-3029; MainId:27397;UUID:25545250-9899-49de-8370-71088dbc5032;MainAdminID:17390
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1949-3029
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; fault level; generator dispatch; inertia; system strength

Citation Formats

Gu, Huajie, Yan, Ruifeng, Saha, Tapan Kumar, and Muljadi, Eduard. System Strength and Inertia Constrained Optimal Generator Dispatch Under High Renewable Penetration. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1109/tste.2019.2957568.
Gu, Huajie, Yan, Ruifeng, Saha, Tapan Kumar, & Muljadi, Eduard. System Strength and Inertia Constrained Optimal Generator Dispatch Under High Renewable Penetration. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/tste.2019.2957568
Gu, Huajie, Yan, Ruifeng, Saha, Tapan Kumar, and Muljadi, Eduard. Wed . "System Strength and Inertia Constrained Optimal Generator Dispatch Under High Renewable Penetration". United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/tste.2019.2957568. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1665820.
@article{osti_1665820,
title = {System Strength and Inertia Constrained Optimal Generator Dispatch Under High Renewable Penetration},
author = {Gu, Huajie and Yan, Ruifeng and Saha, Tapan Kumar and Muljadi, Eduard},
abstractNote = {System strength and inertia inherently provided by synchronous generators (SGs) empower a power system to ride through voltage and power disturbances. The requirements of system strength and inertia were not enforced in the National Electricity Market (NEM) of Australia since SGs dominated the generation fleet in the past. However, increasing wind and solar generation continuously displaces SGs and consequently reduces system strength and inertia in the NEM. This paper proposes a formulation of system strength and inertia constrained optimal generator dispatch to reassure NEM operational security in light of emerging high renewable penetration. A fault current iterative solver is developed to evaluate system strength, in which current limitation and voltage control logics of inverter-based generators, and fault current contribution from VAR compensators are properly modelled in the phasor domain. The system strength contribution factor of an SG is defined to linearize system strength constraint for unit commitment (UC). System and sub-network inertia constraints are also formulated for UC to limit the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) in the event of generator/interconnector trip. We report the proposed generator dispatch formulation can fully meet system strength and inertia requirements in the NEM.},
doi = {10.1109/tste.2019.2957568},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy},
number = 4,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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