skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Wood and Lignocellulosic Filled Composites

Abstract

Wood and lignocellulosic-based material components are explored in this review as functional additives and reinforcements in composites for extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. The motivation for using these sustainable alternatives in 3D printing includes enhancing material properties of the resulting printed parts, while providing a green alternative to carbon or glass filled polymer matrices, all at reduced material costs. Previous review articles on this topic have focused only on introducing the use of natural fillers with material extrusion AM and discussion of their subsequent material properties. This review not only discusses the present state of materials extrusion AM using natural filler-based composites but will also fill in the knowledge gap regarding state-of-the-art applications of these materials. Emphasis will also be placed on addressing the challenges associated with 3D printing using these materials, including use with large-scale manufacturing, while providing insight to overcome these issues in the future.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station (MAFES); USDA
OSTI Identifier:
1664471
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1661238
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; ME0-M-8-00527-13; 58-0202-4-003
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Polymers
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Polymers Journal Volume: 12 Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4360
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
Switzerland
Language:
English
Subject:
materials extrusion; lignocellulosic biomass; wood composites; additive manufacturing; 3D-printing

Citation Formats

Lamm, Meghan E., Wang, Lu, Kishore, Vidya, Tekinalp, Halil, Kunc, Vlastimil, Wang, Jinwu, Gardner, Douglas J., and Ozcan, Soydan. Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Wood and Lignocellulosic Filled Composites. Switzerland: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3390/polym12092115.
Lamm, Meghan E., Wang, Lu, Kishore, Vidya, Tekinalp, Halil, Kunc, Vlastimil, Wang, Jinwu, Gardner, Douglas J., & Ozcan, Soydan. Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Wood and Lignocellulosic Filled Composites. Switzerland. doi:10.3390/polym12092115.
Lamm, Meghan E., Wang, Lu, Kishore, Vidya, Tekinalp, Halil, Kunc, Vlastimil, Wang, Jinwu, Gardner, Douglas J., and Ozcan, Soydan. Thu . "Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Wood and Lignocellulosic Filled Composites". Switzerland. doi:10.3390/polym12092115.
@article{osti_1664471,
title = {Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Wood and Lignocellulosic Filled Composites},
author = {Lamm, Meghan E. and Wang, Lu and Kishore, Vidya and Tekinalp, Halil and Kunc, Vlastimil and Wang, Jinwu and Gardner, Douglas J. and Ozcan, Soydan},
abstractNote = {Wood and lignocellulosic-based material components are explored in this review as functional additives and reinforcements in composites for extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. The motivation for using these sustainable alternatives in 3D printing includes enhancing material properties of the resulting printed parts, while providing a green alternative to carbon or glass filled polymer matrices, all at reduced material costs. Previous review articles on this topic have focused only on introducing the use of natural fillers with material extrusion AM and discussion of their subsequent material properties. This review not only discusses the present state of materials extrusion AM using natural filler-based composites but will also fill in the knowledge gap regarding state-of-the-art applications of these materials. Emphasis will also be placed on addressing the challenges associated with 3D printing using these materials, including use with large-scale manufacturing, while providing insight to overcome these issues in the future.},
doi = {10.3390/polym12092115},
journal = {Polymers},
number = 9,
volume = 12,
place = {Switzerland},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.3390/polym12092115

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Nanofibrillated cellulose: surface modification and potential applications
journal, November 2013

  • Kalia, Susheel; Boufi, Sami; Celli, Annamaria
  • Colloid and Polymer Science, Vol. 292, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00396-013-3112-9

Effects of the infill pattern on mechanical properties of fused layer modeling (FLM) 3D printed wood/polylactic acid (PLA) composites
journal, November 2019


Laser intensity effect on mechanical properties of wood–plastic composite parts fabricated by selective laser sintering
journal, August 2011

  • Zeng, Weiliang; Guo, Yanling; Jiang, Kaiyi
  • Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1177/0892705712461520

FDM 3D Printing of Polymers Containing Natural Fillers: A Review of their Mechanical Properties
journal, June 2019

  • Mazzanti, Valentina; Malagutti, Lorenzo; Mollica, Francesco
  • Polymers, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.3390/polym11071094

Improving Interlayer Adhesion in 3D Printing with Surface Segregating Additives: Improving the Isotropy of Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene Parts
journal, February 2019

  • Levenhagen, Neiko P.; Dadmun, Mark D.
  • ACS Applied Polymer Materials, Vol. 1, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.9b00051

Large-scale 3D printers for additive manufacturing: design considerations and challenges
journal, July 2019

  • Shah, J.; Snider, B.; Clarke, T.
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 104, Issue 9-12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-04074-6

Cellulose Nanocrystals vs. Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Comparative Study on Their Microstructures and Effects as Polymer Reinforcing Agents
journal, January 2013

  • Xu, Xuezhu; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Long
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 5, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/am302624t

Fabrication of flexible wood flour/thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer composites using fused deposition molding
journal, October 2018


Polypropylene/Cellulose Composites for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing
journal, April 2018

  • Kaynak, Baris; Spoerk, Martin; Shirole, Anuja
  • Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, Vol. 303, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/mame.201800037

Mechanical characteristics of wood, ceramic, metal and carbon fiber-based PLA composites fabricated by FDM
journal, September 2019

  • Liu, Zhaobing; Lei, Qian; Xing, Shuaiqi
  • Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.06.034

Wood based bulk material in 3D printing processes for applications in construction
journal, December 2012

  • Henke, Klaudius; Treml, Sebastian
  • European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, Vol. 71, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00107-012-0658-z

Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing to directly manufacture a boat hull mould
journal, October 2018


Characterization of Wood Filament in Additive Deposition to Study the Mechanical Behavior of Reconstituted Wood Products
journal, December 2016

  • Gardan, Julien; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Roucoules, Lionel
  • Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1177/155892501601100408

Polymer Based Nanocomposites: Effect of Filler-Filler and Filler-Matrix Interactions
journal, August 2001


High modulus biocomposites via additive manufacturing: Cellulose nanofibril networks as “microsponges”
journal, September 2019


Thermal properties of spray-dried cellulose nanofibril-reinforced polypropylene composites from extrusion-based additive manufacturing
journal, October 2018

  • Wang, Lu; Palmer, Janice; Tajvidi, Mehdi
  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 136, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10973-018-7759-9

Rheological properties of long glass fiber filled polypropylene
journal, January 2005

  • Thomasset, J.; Carreau, P. J.; Sanschagrin, B.
  • Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 125, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2004.09.004

Structure and mechanical behavior of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) materials
journal, January 2017

  • Duty, Chad E.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Compton, Brett
  • Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 23, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1108/RPJ-12-2015-0183

A review of melt extrusion additive manufacturing processes: I. Process design and modeling
journal, April 2014

  • N. Turner, Brian; Strong, Robert; A. Gold, Scott
  • Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1108/RPJ-01-2013-0012

The influence of grafted cellulose nanofibers and postextrusion annealing treatment on selected properties of poly(lactic acid) filaments for 3D printing
journal, April 2017

  • Dong, Ju; Li, Meichun; Zhou, Ling
  • Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 55, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/polb.24333

Cork–PLA composite filaments for fused deposition modelling
journal, November 2018


Supertough PLA-Silane Nanohybrids by in Situ Condensation and Grafting
journal, November 2017


A path for lignin valorization via additive manufacturing of high-performance sustainable composites with enhanced 3D printability
journal, December 2018

  • Nguyen, Ngoc A.; Barnes, Sietske H.; Bowland, Christopher C.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4967

Crystallization behavior of nylon 6 nanocomposites
journal, June 2003


UV grafting: surface modification of cellulose nanofibers without the use of organic solvents
journal, January 2019

  • Yang, Xianpeng; Ku, Ting-Hsuan; Biswas, Subir K.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 21, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C9GC02035G

Classification of wood fibre geometry and its behaviour in wood poly(lactic acid) composites
journal, June 2020


Three-Dimensional Printing of Wood-Derived Biopolymers: A Review Focused on Biomedical Applications
journal, March 2018


?Greening? the chemical industry: research and development priorities for biobased industrial products
journal, January 2003

  • Dale, Bruce E.
  • Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Vol. 78, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/jctb.850

Fundamental aspects of wood as a component of thermoplastic composites
journal, June 2003

  • Stokke, Douglas D.; Gardner, Douglas J.
  • Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/vnl.10069

Polypropylene Filled With Glass Spheres in Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing: Effect of Filler Size and Printing Chamber Temperature
journal, May 2018

  • Spoerk, Martin; Arbeiter, Florian; Raguž, Ivan
  • Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, Vol. 303, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/mame.201800179

Production and 3D printing processing of bio-based thermoplastic filament
journal, January 2017

  • Gkartzou, Eleni; Koumoulos, Elias P.; Charitidis, Costas A.
  • Manufacturing Review, Vol. 4
  • DOI: 10.1051/mfreview/2016020

Lignocellulosic biomass: a sustainable platform for the production of bio-based chemicals and polymers
journal, January 2015

  • Isikgor, Furkan H.; Becer, C. Remzi
  • Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5PY00263J

A general method to improve 3D-printability and inter-layer adhesion in lignin-based composites
journal, September 2018


Three-dimensional printing of poly(lactic acid) bio-based composites with sugarcane bagasse fiber: Effect of printing orientation on tensile performance
journal, January 2019

  • Liu, Hao; He, Hui; Peng, Xiaodong
  • Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 30, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pat.4524

The influence of versatile thiol-norbornene modifications to cellulose nanofibers on rheology and film properties
journal, February 2020


Rheological survey of carbon fiber-reinforced high-temperature thermoplastics for big area additive manufacturing tooling applications
journal, September 2019

  • Ajinjeru, Christine; Kishore, Vidya; Chen, Xun
  • Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials
  • DOI: 10.1177/0892705719873941

Polyvinyl alcohol reinforced with crystalline nanocellulose for 3D printing application
journal, June 2018


Increased fracture toughness of additively manufactured amorphous thermoplastics via thermal annealing
journal, May 2018


Comparing mechanical properties of impact modified polypropylene-copolymer (IMPP) from injection molding (IM) and fused layer modeling (FLM) processes
journal, February 2020

  • Sanders, J. Elliott; Wang, Lu; Gardner, Douglas J.
  • Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 26, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1108/RPJ-10-2018-0260

Liquid Deposition Modeling: a promising approach for 3D printing of wood
journal, December 2017

  • Rosenthal, Michael; Henneberger, Clara; Gutkes, Anna
  • European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, Vol. 76, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00107-017-1274-8

Current advances and future perspectives of 3D printing natural-derived biopolymers
journal, March 2019


Cellulose Fibrils for Polymer Reinforcement
journal, September 2004

  • Zimmermann, T.; Pöhler, E.; Geiger, T.
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.200400097

Extrusion control for high quality printing on Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) systems
journal, August 2019


Rheology of HDPE–wood composites. I. Steady state shear and extensional flow
journal, March 2004


Surface modification of cellulose nanofibrils for poly(lactic acid) composite application
journal, February 2012

  • Qu, Ping; Zhou, Yitong; Zhang, Xiaoli
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 125, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/app.36360

Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications
journal, June 2016


Contribution of printing parameters to the interfacial strength of polylactic acid (PLA) in material extrusion additive manufacturing
journal, April 2018


Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology
journal, April 2013


Poly(lactic acid) Toughening through Chain End Engineering
journal, December 2019


A review on additive manufacturing of polymer-fiber composites
journal, December 2017


Additive manufacturing of heat-sensitive polymer melt using a pellet-fed material extrusion
journal, December 2018


Material extrusion of plant biopolymers: Opportunities & challenges for 3D printing
journal, May 2018


Production and characterization of bamboo and flax fiber reinforced polylactic acid filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM)
journal, August 2018

  • Depuydt, Delphine; Balthazar, Michiel; Hendrickx, Kevin
  • Polymer Composites, Vol. 40, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/pc.24971

Use of wood powder and adhesive as a mixture for 3D printing
journal, November 2015

  • Kariz, Mirko; Sernek, Milan; Kuzman, Manja Kitek
  • European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, Vol. 74, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00107-015-0987-9

Nanocellulose: a new ageless bionanomaterial
journal, June 2013


Green nanomaterials: On track for a sustainable future
journal, August 2015


Wood–Plastic Composite Technology
journal, June 2015


Lignin: A Biopolymer from Forestry Biomass for Biocomposites and 3D Printing
journal, September 2019

  • Tanase-Opedal, Mihaela; Espinosa, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Alejandro
  • Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma12183006

Effect of wood content in FDM filament on properties of 3D printed parts
journal, March 2018


Effect of fused deposition modeling process parameters on the mechanical properties of a filled polypropylene
journal, May 2018

  • Wang, Lu; Sanders, J. Elliott; Gardner, Douglas J.
  • Progress in Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 3, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40964-018-0053-3

Investigation into the material properties of wooden composite structures with in-situ fibre reinforcement using additive manufacturing
journal, January 2017


Microcrystalline cellulose reinforced polylactic acid biocomposite filaments for 3D printing
journal, May 2016

  • Murphy, Caroline A.; Collins, Maurice N.
  • Polymer Composites, Vol. 39, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pc.24069

Development and Application of Wood Flour-Filled Polylactic Acid Composite Filament for 3D Printing
journal, March 2017

  • Tao, Yubo; Wang, Honglei; Li, Zelong
  • Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma10040339

Large-format polymeric pellet-based additive manufacturing for the naval industry
journal, October 2018


Advances in Wood Composites
journal, December 2019


3D printing with cellulose materials
journal, June 2018


Polyhydroxyalkanoates/Fibrillated Nanocellulose Composites for Additive Manufacturing
journal, April 2019

  • Valentini, F.; Dorigato, A.; Rigotti, D.
  • Journal of Polymers and the Environment, Vol. 27, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10924-019-01429-8

3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective
journal, February 2017


Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Metal/Polymer Composite Filaments and Printing Parameter Study for Fused Deposition Modeling in the 3D Printing Process
journal, October 2014

  • Hwang, Seyeon; Reyes, Edgar I.; Moon, Kyoung-sik
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 44, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-014-3425-6

Optimisation of the Adhesion of Polypropylene-Based Materials during Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing
journal, May 2018

  • Spoerk, Martin; Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Lichal, Christof
  • Polymers, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.3390/polym10050490

Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites
journal, January 2011

  • Moon, Robert J.; Martini, Ashlie; Nairn, John
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 40, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/c0cs00108b

Thermoplastic composites of polyamide-12 reinforced by cellulose nanofibers with cationic surface modification
journal, May 2014

  • Semba, Takeshi; Ito, Akihiro; Kitagawa, Kazuo
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 131, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/app.40920

Effect of Porosity and Crystallinity on 3D Printed PLA Properties
journal, September 2019


Nanocelluloses: A New Family of Nature-Based Materials
journal, May 2011

  • Klemm, Dieter; Kramer, Friederike; Moritz, Sebastian
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201001273

Control of Process Settings for Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing With Sustainable Natural Composites
journal, April 2019

  • Vijay, Yadunund; Sanandiya, Naresh D.; Dritsas, Stylianos
  • Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 141, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4042624

3D Printing with Core–Shell Filaments Containing High or Low Density Polyethylene Shells
journal, January 2019

  • Peng, Fang; Jiang, Haowei; Woods, Adam
  • ACS Applied Polymer Materials, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.8b00186

A large-scale double-stage-screw 3D printer for fused deposition of plastic pellets: ARTICLE
journal, April 2017

  • Liu, Xiaojun; Chi, Baihong; Jiao, Zhiwei
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 134, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1002/app.45147

Effect of processing conditions on crystallization kinetics during materials extrusion additive manufacturing
journal, October 2018


Large-Scale Deposition System by an Industrial Robot (I): Design of Fused Pellet Modeling System and Extrusion Process Analysis
journal, March 2016

  • Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Renwei; Sparks, Todd
  • 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1089/3dp.2015.0029

Poplar as Biofiber Reinforcement in Composites for Large-Scale 3D Printing
journal, August 2019

  • Zhao, Xianhui; Tekinalp, Halil; Meng, Xianzhi
  • ACS Applied Bio Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.9b00675

Effects of Build Orientations on Tensile Properties of PLA Material Processed by FDM
journal, October 2014


Wood Furniture Waste-Based Recycled 3-D Printing Filament
journal, November 2017


Structure and rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose
journal, February 2011


Developments in construction-scale additive manufacturing processes
journal, January 2012


Free radical graft copolymerization of nanofibrillated cellulose with acrylic monomers
journal, March 2011


Interlayer adhesion and fracture resistance of polymers printed through melt extrusion additive manufacturing process
journal, October 2018


Material extrusion‐based additive manufacturing of polypropylene: A review on how to improve dimensional inaccuracy and warpage
journal, October 2019

  • Spoerk, Martin; Holzer, Clemens; Gonzalez‐Gutierrez, Joamin
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 137, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/app.48545

Cellulose Nanocrystals: Chemistry, Self-Assembly, and Applications
journal, June 2010

  • Habibi, Youssef; Lucia, Lucian A.; Rojas, Orlando J.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 110, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr900339w