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Title: 12C(p,p')12C Reaction (Ep=19.5–30 MeV) for Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

Abstract

Passive detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is challenging due to its inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of penetrating radiation, the relative ease of shielding, and the fluctuating and frequently overwhelming background. Active interrogation, the use of external radiation to increase the emission rate of characteristic radiation from SNM, has long been considered to be a promising method to overcome those challenges. Current active-interrogation systems that incorporate radiography tend to use bremsstrahlung beams, which can deliver high radiation doses. Low-energy ion-driven nuclear reactions that produce multiple monoenergetic photons may be used as an alternative. The 12 C ( p , p ' ) 12 C reaction is one such reaction that could produce large yields of highly penetrating 4.4- and 15.1-MeV gamma rays. This reaction does not directly produce neutrons below the approximately 19.7 MeV threshold, and the 15.1-MeV gamma-ray line is well matched to the photofission cross section of 235 U and 238 U . In this article, we report the measurements of thick-target gamma-ray yields at 4.4 and 15.1 MeV from the 12 C ( p , p ' ) 12 C reaction at proton energies of 19.5, 25, and 30 MeV. Measurements are made with two 3 -in. EJ-309 cylindrical liquid scintillation detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at 0 ° and 90 ° , with an additional 1.5 -in. Na I ( Tl ) cylindrical scintillation detector at 0 ° . We estimate the highest yields of the 4.4- and 15.1-MeV gamma rays of 1.65 × 10 10 and 4.47 × 10 8 sr - 1 μ C - 1 at a proton energy of 30 MeV, respectively. The yields in all experimental configurations are greater than in a comparable deuteron-driven reaction that produces the same gamma-ray energies— 11 B ( d , n γ ) 12 C . However, a significant increase of the neutron radiation dose accompanies the proton energy increase from 19.5 to 30 MeV.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  3. National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)
  4. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City (Taiwan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); US Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
OSTI Identifier:
1661256
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; 2015-DN-077-ARI096; NA-241
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Nattress, J., Sutanto, F., Fang, P. -W., Chen, Y. -Z., Cheng, A., Chu, K. -Y., Duh, T. -S., Tsai, H. -Y., Lin, M. -W., and Jovanovic, I. 12C(p,p')12C Reaction (Ep=19.5–30 MeV) for Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevapplied.14.034043.
Nattress, J., Sutanto, F., Fang, P. -W., Chen, Y. -Z., Cheng, A., Chu, K. -Y., Duh, T. -S., Tsai, H. -Y., Lin, M. -W., & Jovanovic, I. 12C(p,p')12C Reaction (Ep=19.5–30 MeV) for Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevapplied.14.034043.
Nattress, J., Sutanto, F., Fang, P. -W., Chen, Y. -Z., Cheng, A., Chu, K. -Y., Duh, T. -S., Tsai, H. -Y., Lin, M. -W., and Jovanovic, I. Wed . "12C(p,p')12C Reaction (Ep=19.5–30 MeV) for Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevapplied.14.034043.
@article{osti_1661256,
title = {12C(p,p')12C Reaction (Ep=19.5–30 MeV) for Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material},
author = {Nattress, J. and Sutanto, F. and Fang, P. -W. and Chen, Y. -Z. and Cheng, A. and Chu, K. -Y. and Duh, T. -S. and Tsai, H. -Y. and Lin, M. -W. and Jovanovic, I.},
abstractNote = {Passive detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is challenging due to its inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of penetrating radiation, the relative ease of shielding, and the fluctuating and frequently overwhelming background. Active interrogation, the use of external radiation to increase the emission rate of characteristic radiation from SNM, has long been considered to be a promising method to overcome those challenges. Current active-interrogation systems that incorporate radiography tend to use bremsstrahlung beams, which can deliver high radiation doses. Low-energy ion-driven nuclear reactions that produce multiple monoenergetic photons may be used as an alternative. The 12C(p,p')12C reaction is one such reaction that could produce large yields of highly penetrating 4.4- and 15.1-MeV gamma rays. This reaction does not directly produce neutrons below the approximately 19.7 MeV threshold, and the 15.1-MeV gamma-ray line is well matched to the photofission cross section of 235U and 238U. In this article, we report the measurements of thick-target gamma-ray yields at 4.4 and 15.1 MeV from the 12C(p,p')12C reaction at proton energies of 19.5, 25, and 30 MeV. Measurements are made with two 3-in. EJ-309 cylindrical liquid scintillation detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at 0° and 90°, with an additional 1.5-in. NaI(Tl) cylindrical scintillation detector at 0°. We estimate the highest yields of the 4.4- and 15.1-MeV gamma rays of 1.65×1010 and 4.47×108sr-1 μC-1 at a proton energy of 30 MeV, respectively. The yields in all experimental configurations are greater than in a comparable deuteron-driven reaction that produces the same gamma-ray energies—11B(d,nγ)12C. However, a significant increase of the neutron radiation dose accompanies the proton energy increase from 19.5 to 30 MeV.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevapplied.14.034043},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 3,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

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