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Title: RELICS: The Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey and the Brightest High-z Galaxies

Abstract

Massive foreground galaxy clusters magnify and distort the light of objects behind them, permitting a view into both the extremely distant and intrinsically faint galaxy populations. Here we present the $$z\sim 6\mbox{--}8$$ candidate high-redshift galaxies from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS), a Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope survey of 41 massive galaxy clusters spanning an area of ≈200 arcmin2. These clusters were selected to be excellent lenses, and we find similar high-redshift sample sizes and magnitude distributions as the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We discover 257, 57, and eight candidate galaxies at z ~ 6, 7, and 8 respectively, (322 in total). The observed (lensed) magnitudes of the z ~ 6 candidates are as bright as AB mag ~23, making them among the brightest known at these redshifts, comparable with discoveries from much wider, blank-field surveys. RELICS demonstrates the efficiency of using strong gravitational lenses to produce high-redshift samples in the epoch of reionization. These brightly observed galaxies are excellent targets for follow-up study with current and future observatories, including the James Webb Space Telescope.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [7];  [6]; ORCiD logo [9];  [5]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [6];  [8] more »; ORCiD logo [2];  [8]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6];  [6];  [11]; ORCiD logo [12];  [1];  [13]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [16] « less
  1. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  2. Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Leiden Observatory
  3. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  4. Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Geneva Observatory
  5. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  6. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  7. Univ. of Melbourne (Australia). School of Physics
  8. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  9. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  10. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  11. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  12. Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  13. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  14. Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  15. Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Padova (Italy). Osservatorio astronomico di Padova
  16. Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Physics Dept.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1660524
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-738179
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; 891253
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; NAS5-26555; NAS5-32864
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 889; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
galaxies: high-redshift — galaxies: evolution — galaxies: clusters: general — galaxies: luminosity function; mass function — gravitational lensing: strong

Citation Formats

Salmon, Brett, Coe, Dan, Bradley, Larry, Bouwens, Rychard, Bradač, Marusa, Huang, Kuang-Han, Oesch, Pascal A., Stark, Daniel, Sharon, Keren, Trenti, Michele, Avila, Roberto J., Ogaz, Sara, Andrade-Santos, Felipe, Carrasco, Daniela, Cerny, Catherine, Dawson, William, Frye, Brenda L., Hoag, Austin, Johnson, Traci Lin, Jones, Christine, Lam, Daniel, Lovisari, Lorenzo, Mainali, Ramesh, Past, Matt, Paterno-Mahler, Rachel, Peterson, Avery, Riess, Adam G., Rodney, Steven A., Ryan, Russel E., Sendra-Server, Irene, Strait, Victoria, Strolger, Louis-Gregory, Umetsu, Keiichi, Vulcani, Benedetta, and Zitrin, Adi. RELICS: The Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey and the Brightest High-z Galaxies. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab5a8b.
Salmon, Brett, Coe, Dan, Bradley, Larry, Bouwens, Rychard, Bradač, Marusa, Huang, Kuang-Han, Oesch, Pascal A., Stark, Daniel, Sharon, Keren, Trenti, Michele, Avila, Roberto J., Ogaz, Sara, Andrade-Santos, Felipe, Carrasco, Daniela, Cerny, Catherine, Dawson, William, Frye, Brenda L., Hoag, Austin, Johnson, Traci Lin, Jones, Christine, Lam, Daniel, Lovisari, Lorenzo, Mainali, Ramesh, Past, Matt, Paterno-Mahler, Rachel, Peterson, Avery, Riess, Adam G., Rodney, Steven A., Ryan, Russel E., Sendra-Server, Irene, Strait, Victoria, Strolger, Louis-Gregory, Umetsu, Keiichi, Vulcani, Benedetta, & Zitrin, Adi. RELICS: The Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey and the Brightest High-z Galaxies. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab5a8b.
Salmon, Brett, Coe, Dan, Bradley, Larry, Bouwens, Rychard, Bradač, Marusa, Huang, Kuang-Han, Oesch, Pascal A., Stark, Daniel, Sharon, Keren, Trenti, Michele, Avila, Roberto J., Ogaz, Sara, Andrade-Santos, Felipe, Carrasco, Daniela, Cerny, Catherine, Dawson, William, Frye, Brenda L., Hoag, Austin, Johnson, Traci Lin, Jones, Christine, Lam, Daniel, Lovisari, Lorenzo, Mainali, Ramesh, Past, Matt, Paterno-Mahler, Rachel, Peterson, Avery, Riess, Adam G., Rodney, Steven A., Ryan, Russel E., Sendra-Server, Irene, Strait, Victoria, Strolger, Louis-Gregory, Umetsu, Keiichi, Vulcani, Benedetta, and Zitrin, Adi. Wed . "RELICS: The Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey and the Brightest High-z Galaxies". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab5a8b.
@article{osti_1660524,
title = {RELICS: The Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey and the Brightest High-z Galaxies},
author = {Salmon, Brett and Coe, Dan and Bradley, Larry and Bouwens, Rychard and Bradač, Marusa and Huang, Kuang-Han and Oesch, Pascal A. and Stark, Daniel and Sharon, Keren and Trenti, Michele and Avila, Roberto J. and Ogaz, Sara and Andrade-Santos, Felipe and Carrasco, Daniela and Cerny, Catherine and Dawson, William and Frye, Brenda L. and Hoag, Austin and Johnson, Traci Lin and Jones, Christine and Lam, Daniel and Lovisari, Lorenzo and Mainali, Ramesh and Past, Matt and Paterno-Mahler, Rachel and Peterson, Avery and Riess, Adam G. and Rodney, Steven A. and Ryan, Russel E. and Sendra-Server, Irene and Strait, Victoria and Strolger, Louis-Gregory and Umetsu, Keiichi and Vulcani, Benedetta and Zitrin, Adi},
abstractNote = {Massive foreground galaxy clusters magnify and distort the light of objects behind them, permitting a view into both the extremely distant and intrinsically faint galaxy populations. Here we present the $z\sim 6\mbox{--}8$ candidate high-redshift galaxies from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS), a Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope survey of 41 massive galaxy clusters spanning an area of ≈200 arcmin2. These clusters were selected to be excellent lenses, and we find similar high-redshift sample sizes and magnitude distributions as the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We discover 257, 57, and eight candidate galaxies at z ~ 6, 7, and 8 respectively, (322 in total). The observed (lensed) magnitudes of the z ~ 6 candidates are as bright as AB mag ~23, making them among the brightest known at these redshifts, comparable with discoveries from much wider, blank-field surveys. RELICS demonstrates the efficiency of using strong gravitational lenses to produce high-redshift samples in the epoch of reionization. These brightly observed galaxies are excellent targets for follow-up study with current and future observatories, including the James Webb Space Telescope.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab5a8b},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 889,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 7-8 USING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING OF THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744
journal, February 2015


An Infrared Spectroscopic Sequence of M, L, and T Dwarfs
journal, April 2005

  • Cushing, Michael C.; Rayner, John T.; Vacca, William D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 623, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/428040

Planck 2015 results : XXVII. The second
journal, September 2016


Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. I. Detection, Multiband Photometry, Photometric Redshifts, and Morphology
journal, July 2006

  • Coe, Dan; Benítez, Narciso; Sánchez, Sebastián F.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 132, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/505530

Radiative transfer in a clumpy universe: The colors of high-redshift galaxies
journal, March 1995

  • Madau, Piero
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 441
  • DOI: 10.1086/175332

Evidence for a Hard Ionizing Spectrum from a z = 6.11 Stellar Population
journal, February 2017


A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang
journal, September 2012


The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function over the First two Billion Years
journal, September 2015

  • Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E.; Papovich, Casey
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 810, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/71

Galaxy Clusters Discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect in the 2500-Square-Degree Spt-Sz Survey
journal, January 2015

  • Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 216, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/27

The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang
journal, May 2018


UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT REDSHIFTS z ∼ 4 TO z ∼ 10: 10,000 GALAXIES FROM HST LEGACY FIELDS
journal, April 2015


Candels: the Contribution of the Observed Galaxy Population to Cosmic Reionization
journal, October 2012

  • Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Ryan, Russell E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 758, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/758/2/93

Spectroscopic confirmation of an ultra-faint galaxy at the epoch of reionization
journal, April 2017


THE UDF05 FOLLOW-UP OF THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD. II. CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION FROM Z -DROPOUT GALAXIES
journal, December 2008


ARE ULTRA-FAINT GALAXIES AT z = 6–8 RESPONSIBLE FOR COSMIC REIONIZATION? COMBINED CONSTRAINTS FROM THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTERS AND PARALLELS
journal, November 2015


Extremely Small Sizes for Faint z ∼ 2–8 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields: A Key Input for Establishing Their Volume Density and UV Emissivity
journal, June 2017

  • Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 843, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa74e4

PROBING THE z > 6 UNIVERSE WITH THE FIRST HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744
journal, April 2014


CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY—THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS
journal, December 2011

  • Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 197, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/197/2/36

Candels: the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey
journal, December 2011

  • Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 197, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/197/2/35

Radiative Transfer in a Clumpy Universe. III. The Nature of Cosmological Ionizing Sources
journal, April 1999

  • Madau, Piero; Haardt, Francesco; Rees, Martin J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 514, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/306975

A new multifield determination of the galaxy luminosity function at z = 7–9 incorporating the 2012 Hubble Ultra-Deep Field imaging
journal, May 2013

  • McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bowler, R. A. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt627

CLASH: THREE STRONGLY LENSED IMAGES OF A CANDIDATE z ≈ 11 GALAXY
journal, December 2012


CoMaLit – III. Literature catalogues of weak lensing clusters of galaxies (LC2)
journal, May 2015

  • Sereno, Mauro
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2505

The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (Wise): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance
journal, November 2010


THE SIZES OF z ∼ 6–8 LENSED GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS ABELL 2744 DATA
journal, May 2015

  • Kawamata, Ryota; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 804, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/103