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Title: Degradation in photovoltaic encapsulation strength of attachment: Results of the first PVQAT TG5 artificial weathering study

Abstract

Delamination of the encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) module technology results in immediate optical loss and may enable subsequent corrosion or mechanical damage. The effects of artificial weathering were not previously known; therefore, an empirical study was performed to survey the factors most affecting adhesion, including the ultraviolet (UV) source (ie, Xe or fluorescent lamp[s]), the optical filters for the lamp, the chamber temperature, and the relative humidity. Natural weathering was also performed at locations, including the following: Golden, Colorado; Miami, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; QiongHai, China; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and Turpan, China. Specimens were constructed using a laminated glass/poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/glass geometry. The compressive shear test (CST) was used to quantify the mechanical strength of attachment, taken as a proxy for adhesion. The fractography of select specimens (including cross-sectional optical microscopy) was used to verify the failure mode (delamination or decohesion). Additional analysis of the local solar spectrum as well as the specimen temperature was performed to interpret the results of natural weathering. The goals of this study include to identify the most significant stressors, clarify where strong coupling may occur between stressors, and validate accelerated test results relative to natural weathering. The importance of specimen conditioning (for moisture) and hygrometricmore » degradation as well as the effects of UV degradation are identified in this paper.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [9];  [1];  [2];  [10];  [11];  [5];  [5];  [12];  [5]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
  3. Specialized Technology Resources, Inc. (STR), Enfield, CT (United States)
  4. 3M Corporate Research Analytical Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)
  5. Atlas Material Testing Technology LLC, Mount Prospect, IL (United States)
  6. China National Electric Apparatus Research Inst. Co., Ltd. (CEI), Guangzhou (China)
  7. Q‐Lab Corp., Cleveland, OH (United States)
  8. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
  9. Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States)
  10. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) Freiburg 79110 Germany
  11. DuPont de Nemours, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)
  12. RenewSys India Pvt Ltd., Bangalore (India)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1659929
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1604473
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-74182
Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995; MainId:6333;UUID:63e34a7f-838d-e911-9c24-ac162d87dfe5;MainAdminID:13655
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; durability; EVA; reliability; UVA-340; xenon

Citation Formats

Miller, David C., Alharbi, Fahad, Andreas, Afshin, Bokria, Jayesh G., Burns, David M., Bushong, Jaynae, Chen, Xinxin, Dietz, Dennis, Fowler, Sean, Gu, Xiaohong, Habte, Aron, Honeker, Christian C., Kempe, Michael D., Khonkar, Hussam, Köhl, Michael, Phillips, Nancy H., Rivera, Jorge, Scott, Kurt P., Singh, Ashish, and Zielnik, Allen F.. Degradation in photovoltaic encapsulation strength of attachment: Results of the first PVQAT TG5 artificial weathering study. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3255.
Miller, David C., Alharbi, Fahad, Andreas, Afshin, Bokria, Jayesh G., Burns, David M., Bushong, Jaynae, Chen, Xinxin, Dietz, Dennis, Fowler, Sean, Gu, Xiaohong, Habte, Aron, Honeker, Christian C., Kempe, Michael D., Khonkar, Hussam, Köhl, Michael, Phillips, Nancy H., Rivera, Jorge, Scott, Kurt P., Singh, Ashish, & Zielnik, Allen F.. Degradation in photovoltaic encapsulation strength of attachment: Results of the first PVQAT TG5 artificial weathering study. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3255
Miller, David C., Alharbi, Fahad, Andreas, Afshin, Bokria, Jayesh G., Burns, David M., Bushong, Jaynae, Chen, Xinxin, Dietz, Dennis, Fowler, Sean, Gu, Xiaohong, Habte, Aron, Honeker, Christian C., Kempe, Michael D., Khonkar, Hussam, Köhl, Michael, Phillips, Nancy H., Rivera, Jorge, Scott, Kurt P., Singh, Ashish, and Zielnik, Allen F.. Thu . "Degradation in photovoltaic encapsulation strength of attachment: Results of the first PVQAT TG5 artificial weathering study". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3255. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1659929.
@article{osti_1659929,
title = {Degradation in photovoltaic encapsulation strength of attachment: Results of the first PVQAT TG5 artificial weathering study},
author = {Miller, David C. and Alharbi, Fahad and Andreas, Afshin and Bokria, Jayesh G. and Burns, David M. and Bushong, Jaynae and Chen, Xinxin and Dietz, Dennis and Fowler, Sean and Gu, Xiaohong and Habte, Aron and Honeker, Christian C. and Kempe, Michael D. and Khonkar, Hussam and Köhl, Michael and Phillips, Nancy H. and Rivera, Jorge and Scott, Kurt P. and Singh, Ashish and Zielnik, Allen F.},
abstractNote = {Delamination of the encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) module technology results in immediate optical loss and may enable subsequent corrosion or mechanical damage. The effects of artificial weathering were not previously known; therefore, an empirical study was performed to survey the factors most affecting adhesion, including the ultraviolet (UV) source (ie, Xe or fluorescent lamp[s]), the optical filters for the lamp, the chamber temperature, and the relative humidity. Natural weathering was also performed at locations, including the following: Golden, Colorado; Miami, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; QiongHai, China; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and Turpan, China. Specimens were constructed using a laminated glass/poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/glass geometry. The compressive shear test (CST) was used to quantify the mechanical strength of attachment, taken as a proxy for adhesion. The fractography of select specimens (including cross-sectional optical microscopy) was used to verify the failure mode (delamination or decohesion). Additional analysis of the local solar spectrum as well as the specimen temperature was performed to interpret the results of natural weathering. The goals of this study include to identify the most significant stressors, clarify where strong coupling may occur between stressors, and validate accelerated test results relative to natural weathering. The importance of specimen conditioning (for moisture) and hygrometric degradation as well as the effects of UV degradation are identified in this paper.},
doi = {10.1002/pip.3255},
journal = {Progress in Photovoltaics},
number = 7,
volume = 28,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}