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Title: Effects of Moisture on Diffusion in Unmodified Wood Cell Walls: A Phenomenological Polymer Science Approach

Abstract

Despite the importance of cell wall diffusion to nearly all aspects of wood utilization, diffusion mechanisms and the detailed effects of moisture remain poorly understood. In this perspective, we introduce and employ approaches established in polymer science to develop a phenomenological framework for understanding the effects of moisture on diffusion in unmodified wood cell walls. The premise for applying this polymer-science-based approach to wood is that wood polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) behave like typical solid polymers. Therefore, the movement of chemicals through wood cell walls is a diffusion process through a solid polymer, which is in contrast to previous assertions that transport of some chemicals occurs via aqueous pathways in the cell wall layers. Diffusion in polymers depends on the interrelations between free volume in the polymer matrix, molecular motions of the polymer, diffusant dimensions, and solubility of the diffusant in the polymer matrix. Because diffusion strongly depends on whether a polymer is in a rigid glassy state or soft rubbery state, it is important to understand glass transitions in the amorphous wood polymers. Through a review and analysis of available literature, we conclude that in wood both lignin and the amorphous polysaccharides very likely have glass transitions. Aftermore » developing and presenting this polymer-science-based perspective of diffusion through unmodified wood cell walls, suggested directions for future research are discussed. A key consideration is that a large difference between diffusion through wood polymers and typical polymers is the high swelling pressures that can develop in unmodified wood cell walls. This pressure likely arises from the hierarchical structure of wood and should be taken into consideration in the development of predictive models for diffusion in unmodified wood cell walls.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Transportation Office. Bioenergy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1659834
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-2700-75376
Journal ID: ISSN 1999-4907; MainId:6454;UUID:79952ba1-8201-ea11-9c29-ac162d87dfe5;MainAdminID:13459
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Forests
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1999-4907
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; wood; cellulose; hemicelluloses; lignin; water; diffusion; polymer; plasticization; glass transition; swelling pressure

Citation Formats

Jakes, Joseph E., Hunt, Christopher G., Zelinka, Samuel L., Ciesielski, Peter N., and Plaza, Nayomi Z. Effects of Moisture on Diffusion in Unmodified Wood Cell Walls: A Phenomenological Polymer Science Approach. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121084.
Jakes, Joseph E., Hunt, Christopher G., Zelinka, Samuel L., Ciesielski, Peter N., & Plaza, Nayomi Z. Effects of Moisture on Diffusion in Unmodified Wood Cell Walls: A Phenomenological Polymer Science Approach. United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121084
Jakes, Joseph E., Hunt, Christopher G., Zelinka, Samuel L., Ciesielski, Peter N., and Plaza, Nayomi Z. Fri . "Effects of Moisture on Diffusion in Unmodified Wood Cell Walls: A Phenomenological Polymer Science Approach". United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121084. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1659834.
@article{osti_1659834,
title = {Effects of Moisture on Diffusion in Unmodified Wood Cell Walls: A Phenomenological Polymer Science Approach},
author = {Jakes, Joseph E. and Hunt, Christopher G. and Zelinka, Samuel L. and Ciesielski, Peter N. and Plaza, Nayomi Z.},
abstractNote = {Despite the importance of cell wall diffusion to nearly all aspects of wood utilization, diffusion mechanisms and the detailed effects of moisture remain poorly understood. In this perspective, we introduce and employ approaches established in polymer science to develop a phenomenological framework for understanding the effects of moisture on diffusion in unmodified wood cell walls. The premise for applying this polymer-science-based approach to wood is that wood polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) behave like typical solid polymers. Therefore, the movement of chemicals through wood cell walls is a diffusion process through a solid polymer, which is in contrast to previous assertions that transport of some chemicals occurs via aqueous pathways in the cell wall layers. Diffusion in polymers depends on the interrelations between free volume in the polymer matrix, molecular motions of the polymer, diffusant dimensions, and solubility of the diffusant in the polymer matrix. Because diffusion strongly depends on whether a polymer is in a rigid glassy state or soft rubbery state, it is important to understand glass transitions in the amorphous wood polymers. Through a review and analysis of available literature, we conclude that in wood both lignin and the amorphous polysaccharides very likely have glass transitions. After developing and presenting this polymer-science-based perspective of diffusion through unmodified wood cell walls, suggested directions for future research are discussed. A key consideration is that a large difference between diffusion through wood polymers and typical polymers is the high swelling pressures that can develop in unmodified wood cell walls. This pressure likely arises from the hierarchical structure of wood and should be taken into consideration in the development of predictive models for diffusion in unmodified wood cell walls.},
doi = {10.3390/f10121084},
journal = {Forests},
number = 12,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Corrosiveness of Thermally Modified Wood
    journal, December 2019

    • Zelinka, Samuel; Passarini, Leandro; Matt, Frederick
    • Forests, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3390/f11010050