skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Ceramic encapsulated metal phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage

Abstract

Thermal energy storage (TES) is a broad-based technology for reducing CO₂ emissions and advancing concentrating solar, fossil, and nuclear power through improvements in efficiency and economics. Phase change materials (PCMs) are of interest as TES media because of their ability to store large amounts of heat in relatively small volumes. The volume expansion during a phase change, typically between a solid and liquid, can cause breakage of protective coatings. This paper reports on the fabrication of a ceramic encapsulated metal (CEM) high temperature TES technology using a rotary calcining furnace and a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition coating technique. Aluminum beads were chosen as the PCM because Al has a high melting point (660 °C), low cost, high heat of fusion, and an ability to form a thin, strong alumina layer capable of supporting the Al melt for subsequent processing. Quite remarkably, this study shows that 1 mm diameter Al can be fluidized up to at least 1500 °C in an appropriate atmosphere while maintaining a spheroid geometry. This allowed for producing a first of a kind CEM whereby Al particles were encapsulated in pyro-carbon (PyC) and high purity, dense chemical vapor deposited SiC. The CEM with a PyC onlymore » coating was exposed to thermal cycling to test the performance with a differential scanning calorimeter; the melting point and latent heat were measured to be 648.4 ± 2.8 °C and 293.3 ± 6.2 J/g respectively. It was demonstrated that the CEM design is possible to produce, laying the foundation for manufacturing of high temperature, tunable, TES media.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1649591
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1597133
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Thermal Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 170; Journal Issue: NA; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-4311
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

McMurray, Jake W., Jolly, Brian C., Raiman, Stephen S., Schumacher, Austin T., Cooley, Kevin M., and Lara-Curzio, Edgar. Ceramic encapsulated metal phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115003.
McMurray, Jake W., Jolly, Brian C., Raiman, Stephen S., Schumacher, Austin T., Cooley, Kevin M., & Lara-Curzio, Edgar. Ceramic encapsulated metal phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115003
McMurray, Jake W., Jolly, Brian C., Raiman, Stephen S., Schumacher, Austin T., Cooley, Kevin M., and Lara-Curzio, Edgar. Thu . "Ceramic encapsulated metal phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115003. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1649591.
@article{osti_1649591,
title = {Ceramic encapsulated metal phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage},
author = {McMurray, Jake W. and Jolly, Brian C. and Raiman, Stephen S. and Schumacher, Austin T. and Cooley, Kevin M. and Lara-Curzio, Edgar},
abstractNote = {Thermal energy storage (TES) is a broad-based technology for reducing CO₂ emissions and advancing concentrating solar, fossil, and nuclear power through improvements in efficiency and economics. Phase change materials (PCMs) are of interest as TES media because of their ability to store large amounts of heat in relatively small volumes. The volume expansion during a phase change, typically between a solid and liquid, can cause breakage of protective coatings. This paper reports on the fabrication of a ceramic encapsulated metal (CEM) high temperature TES technology using a rotary calcining furnace and a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition coating technique. Aluminum beads were chosen as the PCM because Al has a high melting point (660 °C), low cost, high heat of fusion, and an ability to form a thin, strong alumina layer capable of supporting the Al melt for subsequent processing. Quite remarkably, this study shows that 1 mm diameter Al can be fluidized up to at least 1500 °C in an appropriate atmosphere while maintaining a spheroid geometry. This allowed for producing a first of a kind CEM whereby Al particles were encapsulated in pyro-carbon (PyC) and high purity, dense chemical vapor deposited SiC. The CEM with a PyC only coating was exposed to thermal cycling to test the performance with a differential scanning calorimeter; the melting point and latent heat were measured to be 648.4 ± 2.8 °C and 293.3 ± 6.2 J/g respectively. It was demonstrated that the CEM design is possible to produce, laying the foundation for manufacturing of high temperature, tunable, TES media.},
doi = {10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115003},
journal = {Applied Thermal Engineering},
number = NA,
volume = 170,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Technical Challenges and Opportunities for Concentrating Solar Power With Thermal Energy Storage
journal, May 2013

  • Stekli, Joseph; Irwin, Levi; Pitchumani, Ranga
  • Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4024143

Using Encapsulated Phase Change Salts for Concentrated Solar Power Plant
journal, January 2014


The Oxidation Mechanism of Pure Aluminum Powder Particles
journal, May 2012


Non-Isothermal Kinetic Analysis of Oxidation of Pure Aluminum Powder Particles
journal, August 2013


A Tension Analysis During Oxidation of Pure Aluminum Powder Particles: Non-isothermal Condition
journal, July 2014


Influence of annealing conditions on the formation of hollow Al2O3 microspheres studied by in situ ESEM
journal, March 2016


Annual comparative performance and cost analysis of high temperature, sensible thermal energy storage systems integrated with a concentrated solar power plant
journal, September 2017


Viscosity and volume properties of the Al-Cu melts
journal, January 2011


FactSage thermochemical software and databases
journal, June 2002


Encapsulation of copper-based phase change materials for high temperature thermal energy storage
journal, September 2014


The Al-Si (Aluminum-Silicon) system
journal, February 1984

  • Murray, J. L.; McAlister, A. J.
  • Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02868729

Aluminum and silicon based phase change materials for high capacity thermal energy storage
journal, October 2015