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Title: Mars Upper Atmospheric Responses to the 10 September 2017 Solar Flare: A Global, Time-Dependent Simulation

Abstract

Here, we report the first global, time-dependent simulation of the Mars upper atmospheric responses to a realistic solar flare event, an X8.2 eruption on 10 September 2017. The Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model runs with realistically specified flare irradiance, giving results in reasonably good agreement with the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft measurements. It is found that the ionized and neutral regimes of the upper atmosphere are significantly disturbed by the flare but react differently. The ionospheric electron density enhancement is concentrated below ~110-km altitude due to enhanced solar X-rays, closely following the time evolution of the flare. The neutral atmospheric perturbation increases with altitude and is important above ~150-km altitude, in association with atmospheric upwelling driven by solar extreme ultraviolet heating. It takes ~2.5 hr past the flare peak to reach the maximum disturbance and then additional ~10 hr to generally settle down to preflare levels.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  5. National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States)
  6. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1648113
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466; 80NSSC19K0562
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; solar flare; Mars; upper atmosphere; ionosphere

Citation Formats

Fang, Xiaohua, Pawlowski, David, Ma, Yingjuan, Bougher, Stephen, Thiemann, Edward, Eparvier, Francis, Wang, Wenbin, Dong, Chuanfei, Lee, Christina O., Dong, Yaxue, Benna, Mehdi, Elrod, Meredith, Chamberlin, Phillip, Mahaffy, Paul, and Jakosky, Bruce. Mars Upper Atmospheric Responses to the 10 September 2017 Solar Flare: A Global, Time-Dependent Simulation. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl084515.
Fang, Xiaohua, Pawlowski, David, Ma, Yingjuan, Bougher, Stephen, Thiemann, Edward, Eparvier, Francis, Wang, Wenbin, Dong, Chuanfei, Lee, Christina O., Dong, Yaxue, Benna, Mehdi, Elrod, Meredith, Chamberlin, Phillip, Mahaffy, Paul, & Jakosky, Bruce. Mars Upper Atmospheric Responses to the 10 September 2017 Solar Flare: A Global, Time-Dependent Simulation. United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl084515
Fang, Xiaohua, Pawlowski, David, Ma, Yingjuan, Bougher, Stephen, Thiemann, Edward, Eparvier, Francis, Wang, Wenbin, Dong, Chuanfei, Lee, Christina O., Dong, Yaxue, Benna, Mehdi, Elrod, Meredith, Chamberlin, Phillip, Mahaffy, Paul, and Jakosky, Bruce. Mon . "Mars Upper Atmospheric Responses to the 10 September 2017 Solar Flare: A Global, Time-Dependent Simulation". United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl084515. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1648113.
@article{osti_1648113,
title = {Mars Upper Atmospheric Responses to the 10 September 2017 Solar Flare: A Global, Time-Dependent Simulation},
author = {Fang, Xiaohua and Pawlowski, David and Ma, Yingjuan and Bougher, Stephen and Thiemann, Edward and Eparvier, Francis and Wang, Wenbin and Dong, Chuanfei and Lee, Christina O. and Dong, Yaxue and Benna, Mehdi and Elrod, Meredith and Chamberlin, Phillip and Mahaffy, Paul and Jakosky, Bruce},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the first global, time-dependent simulation of the Mars upper atmospheric responses to a realistic solar flare event, an X8.2 eruption on 10 September 2017. The Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model runs with realistically specified flare irradiance, giving results in reasonably good agreement with the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft measurements. It is found that the ionized and neutral regimes of the upper atmosphere are significantly disturbed by the flare but react differently. The ionospheric electron density enhancement is concentrated below ~110-km altitude due to enhanced solar X-rays, closely following the time evolution of the flare. The neutral atmospheric perturbation increases with altitude and is important above ~150-km altitude, in association with atmospheric upwelling driven by solar extreme ultraviolet heating. It takes ~2.5 hr past the flare peak to reach the maximum disturbance and then additional ~10 hr to generally settle down to preflare levels.},
doi = {10.1029/2019gl084515},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 16,
volume = 46,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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