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Title: Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses

Abstract

Vaccinations are a crucial intervention in combating infectious diseases. The three neurotropic Alphaviruses, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses, are pathogens of interest for animal health, public health, and biological defense. In both equines and humans, these viruses can cause febrile illness that may progress to encephalitis. Currently, there are no licensed treatments or vaccines available for these viruses in humans. Experimental vaccines have shown variable efficacy and may cause severe adverse effects. Here, we outline recent strategies used to generate vaccines against EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV with an emphasis on virus-vectored and plasmid DNA delivery. Despite candidate vaccines protecting against one of the three viruses, few studies have demonstrated an effective trivalent vaccine. We evaluated the potential of published vaccines to generate cross-reactive protective responses by comparing DNA vaccine sequences to a set of EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV genomes and determining the vaccine coverages of potential epitopes. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of vaccines to combat EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Global Health
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1648092
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-20-20011
Journal ID: ISSN 2076-393X
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Vaccines
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2076-393X
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Alphavirus; antigens; DNA vaccine; Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV); vaccine; Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV); Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV)

Citation Formats

Stromberg, Zachary R., Fischer, Will, Bradfute, Steven B., Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z., and Hraber, Peter. Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020273.
Stromberg, Zachary R., Fischer, Will, Bradfute, Steven B., Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z., & Hraber, Peter. Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses. United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020273
Stromberg, Zachary R., Fischer, Will, Bradfute, Steven B., Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z., and Hraber, Peter. Wed . "Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses". United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020273. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1648092.
@article{osti_1648092,
title = {Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses},
author = {Stromberg, Zachary R. and Fischer, Will and Bradfute, Steven B. and Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z. and Hraber, Peter},
abstractNote = {Vaccinations are a crucial intervention in combating infectious diseases. The three neurotropic Alphaviruses, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses, are pathogens of interest for animal health, public health, and biological defense. In both equines and humans, these viruses can cause febrile illness that may progress to encephalitis. Currently, there are no licensed treatments or vaccines available for these viruses in humans. Experimental vaccines have shown variable efficacy and may cause severe adverse effects. Here, we outline recent strategies used to generate vaccines against EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV with an emphasis on virus-vectored and plasmid DNA delivery. Despite candidate vaccines protecting against one of the three viruses, few studies have demonstrated an effective trivalent vaccine. We evaluated the potential of published vaccines to generate cross-reactive protective responses by comparing DNA vaccine sequences to a set of EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV genomes and determining the vaccine coverages of potential epitopes. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of vaccines to combat EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV.},
doi = {10.3390/vaccines8020273},
journal = {Vaccines},
number = 2,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

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