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Title: Cold Spray Deposition of Thermoelectric Materials

Abstract

Thermoelectric materials convert heat flux to electricity (or vice versa as Peltier coolers); however, their application to harvest waste heat is limited by challenges in fabrication and materials optimization. In this work, cold-spray deposition is used as an additive manufacturing technique to fabricate p- and n-type Bi2Te3, on substrates ranging from quartz to aluminum. The sprayed material has a randomly oriented microstructure largely free from pores (> 99.5% dense), and deposition is achieved without substantial compositional changes. Furthermore, the Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are largely preserved through the spray process, but the defects introduced during deposition significantly increase electrical resistivity. Defects can be removed, and compressive strain relaxed by a post-deposition anneal, which leads to Bi2Te3 blocks with a typical ZT of 0.3 at 100°C. Generators fabricated on sheets or pipes made of copper compare favorably with similar designs constructed using bulk Bi2Te3, displaying a wider operating temperature range. Thus, these results demonstrate the power and versatility of cold-spray additive manufacturing and provide a pathway toward fabrication of thermoelectric generators in complex geometries that are inaccessible to generators made by traditional approaches.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. TTEC Thermoelectric Technologies, Berryville, VA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1647447
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-778017
Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838; 971868
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-06CH11357; EAR-1634415; FG02-94ER14466
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Baker, Alexander A., Thuss, Richard, Woollett, Nathan, Maich, Alyssa, Stavrou, Elissaios, McCall, Scott K., and Radousky, Harry B.. Cold Spray Deposition of Thermoelectric Materials. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04151-2.
Baker, Alexander A., Thuss, Richard, Woollett, Nathan, Maich, Alyssa, Stavrou, Elissaios, McCall, Scott K., & Radousky, Harry B.. Cold Spray Deposition of Thermoelectric Materials. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04151-2
Baker, Alexander A., Thuss, Richard, Woollett, Nathan, Maich, Alyssa, Stavrou, Elissaios, McCall, Scott K., and Radousky, Harry B.. Wed . "Cold Spray Deposition of Thermoelectric Materials". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04151-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1647447.
@article{osti_1647447,
title = {Cold Spray Deposition of Thermoelectric Materials},
author = {Baker, Alexander A. and Thuss, Richard and Woollett, Nathan and Maich, Alyssa and Stavrou, Elissaios and McCall, Scott K. and Radousky, Harry B.},
abstractNote = {Thermoelectric materials convert heat flux to electricity (or vice versa as Peltier coolers); however, their application to harvest waste heat is limited by challenges in fabrication and materials optimization. In this work, cold-spray deposition is used as an additive manufacturing technique to fabricate p- and n-type Bi2Te3, on substrates ranging from quartz to aluminum. The sprayed material has a randomly oriented microstructure largely free from pores (> 99.5% dense), and deposition is achieved without substantial compositional changes. Furthermore, the Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are largely preserved through the spray process, but the defects introduced during deposition significantly increase electrical resistivity. Defects can be removed, and compressive strain relaxed by a post-deposition anneal, which leads to Bi2Te3 blocks with a typical ZT of 0.3 at 100°C. Generators fabricated on sheets or pipes made of copper compare favorably with similar designs constructed using bulk Bi2Te3, displaying a wider operating temperature range. Thus, these results demonstrate the power and versatility of cold-spray additive manufacturing and provide a pathway toward fabrication of thermoelectric generators in complex geometries that are inaccessible to generators made by traditional approaches.},
doi = {10.1007/s11837-020-04151-2},
journal = {JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society},
number = 8,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

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