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Title: Durability challenges of anion exchange membrane fuel cells

Abstract

As substantial progress has been made in improving the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) over the last decade, the durability of AEMFCs has become the most critical requirement to deploy competitive energy conversion systems. Because of different operating environments from proton exchange membrane fuel cells, several AEMFC-specific component degradations have been identified as the limiting factors influencing the AEMFC durability. In this article, AEMFC durability protocol, the current status of AEMFC durability, and performance degradation mechanisms are reported based on the discussion during the US Department of Energy (DOE) Anion Exchange Membrane Workshop at Dallas, Texas, May 2019. With additional recent progress, we provide our perspectives on current technical challenges and future action to develop long-lasting AEMFCs.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA
  2. Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, Grenoble INP (Institute of Engineering, Univ. Grenoble Alpes), LEPMI
  3. PO-CellTech Ltd., Caesarea, Israel
  4. MPA-11: Materials Synthesis & Integrated Devices, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Transportation Office. Fuel Cell Technologies Office; USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); French National Research Agency
OSTI Identifier:
1638298
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1726196
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-20-22778
Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692; EESNBY
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; N62909-16-1-2137; ANR-16-CE05-0009-01; EE0008433
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Energy & Environmental Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energy & Environmental Science Journal Volume: 13 Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Energy Sciences

Citation Formats

Mustain, William E., Chatenet, Marian, Page, Miles, and Kim, Yu Seung. Durability challenges of anion exchange membrane fuel cells. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0EE01133A.
Mustain, William E., Chatenet, Marian, Page, Miles, & Kim, Yu Seung. Durability challenges of anion exchange membrane fuel cells. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0EE01133A
Mustain, William E., Chatenet, Marian, Page, Miles, and Kim, Yu Seung. Wed . "Durability challenges of anion exchange membrane fuel cells". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0EE01133A.
@article{osti_1638298,
title = {Durability challenges of anion exchange membrane fuel cells},
author = {Mustain, William E. and Chatenet, Marian and Page, Miles and Kim, Yu Seung},
abstractNote = {As substantial progress has been made in improving the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) over the last decade, the durability of AEMFCs has become the most critical requirement to deploy competitive energy conversion systems. Because of different operating environments from proton exchange membrane fuel cells, several AEMFC-specific component degradations have been identified as the limiting factors influencing the AEMFC durability. In this article, AEMFC durability protocol, the current status of AEMFC durability, and performance degradation mechanisms are reported based on the discussion during the US Department of Energy (DOE) Anion Exchange Membrane Workshop at Dallas, Texas, May 2019. With additional recent progress, we provide our perspectives on current technical challenges and future action to develop long-lasting AEMFCs.},
doi = {10.1039/D0EE01133A},
journal = {Energy & Environmental Science},
number = 9,
volume = 13,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1039/D0EE01133A

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Along-the-Channel Impacts of Water Management and Carbon-Dioxide Contamination in Hydroxide-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells: A Modeling Study
journal, January 2019

  • Gerhardt, Michael R.; Pant, Lalit M.; Weber, Adam Z.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 166, Issue 7
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Engineered Water Highways in Fuel Cells: Radiation Grafting of Gas Diffusion Layers
journal, September 2015

  • Forner-Cuenca, Antoni; Biesdorf, Johannes; Gubler, Lorenz
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 41
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Quaternized aryl ether-free polyaromatics for alkaline membrane fuel cells: synthesis, properties, and performance – a topical review
journal, January 2018

  • Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Yu Seung
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 32
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Stable Elastomeric Anion Exchange Membranes Based on Quaternary Ammonium-Tethered Polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-polystyrene Triblock Copolymers
journal, September 2015


Nanostructured nickel nanoparticles supported on vulcan carbon as a highly active catalyst for the hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline media
journal, October 2018


Unusually High Concentration of Alkyl Ammonium Hydroxide in the Cation–Hydroxide–Water Coadsorbed Layer on Pt
journal, December 2019

  • Dumont, Joseph H.; Spears, André J.; Hjelm, Rex P.
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 12, Issue 1
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Characterization of Vulcan Electrochemically Oxidized under Simulated PEM Fuel Cell Conditions
journal, January 2004

  • Kangasniemi, K. H.; Condit, D. A.; Jarvi, T. D.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 151, Issue 4
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Adsorption of Polyaromatic Backbone Impacts the Performance of Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, May 2019


Effects of the N -alicyclic cation and backbone structures on the performance of poly(terphenyl)-based hydroxide exchange membranes
journal, January 2019

  • Pham, Thanh Huong; Olsson, Joel S.; Jannasch, Patric
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 26
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Highly active nanostructured palladium-ceria electrocatalysts for the hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline medium
journal, March 2017


Density Functional Theory Study of Degradation of Tetraalkylammonium Hydroxides
journal, June 2010

  • Chempath, Shaji; Boncella, James M.; Pratt, Lawrence R.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 114, Issue 27
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Guanidinium-Functionalized Anion Exchange Polymer Electrolytes via Activated Fluorophenyl-Amine Reaction
journal, September 2011

  • Kim, Dae Sik; Labouriau, Andrea; Guiver, Michael D.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 17
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Fuel cell systems for transportation: Status and trends
journal, February 2008


Mass-Transport Characteristics of Oxygen at Pt/Anion Exchange Ionomer Interface
journal, May 2014

  • Khadke, Prashant Subhas; Krewer, Ulrike
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 118, Issue 21
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Steady state and transient simulation of anion exchange membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2018


Relationship between physicochemical properties and electrooxidation behaviour of carbon materials
journal, January 1991


Composite Poly(norbornene) Anion Conducting Membranes for Achieving Durability, Water Management and High Power (3.4 W/cm 2 ) in Hydrogen/Oxygen Alkaline Fuel Cells
journal, January 2019

  • Huang, Garrett; Mandal, Mrinmay; Peng, Xiong
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 166, Issue 10
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Relationships between Structure and Alkaline Stability of Imidazolium Cations for Fuel Cell Membrane Applications
journal, January 2014

  • Price, Samuel C.; Williams, Kristen S.; Beyer, Frederick L.
  • ACS Macro Letters, Vol. 3, Issue 2
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Physical degradation of membrane electrode assemblies undergoing freeze/thaw cycling: Micro-structure effects
journal, November 2007


The Comparability of Pt to Pt-Ru in Catalyzing the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction for Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Operated at 80 °C
journal, January 2019

  • Li, Qihao; Peng, Hanqing; Wang, Yingming
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 58, Issue 5
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Bis-imidazolium-based anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells
journal, November 2012


Poly(aryl piperidinium) membranes and ionomers for hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells
journal, April 2019


The Corrosion of Carbon Black Anodes in Alkaline Electrolyte
journal, January 1988

  • Ross, Philip N.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 6
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Nafion in Dilute Solvent Systems: Dispersion or Solution?
journal, November 2012

  • Welch, Cynthia; Labouriau, Andrea; Hjelm, Rex
  • ACS Macro Letters, Vol. 1, Issue 12
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Analysis of Double Layer and Adsorption Effects at the Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte-Electrode Interface
journal, January 2011

  • Ünlü, Murat; Abbott, Daniel; Ramaswamy, Nagappan
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 158, Issue 11
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Hydroxide, halide and water transport in a model anion exchange membrane
journal, August 2014


Effect of cationic molecules on the oxygen reduction reaction on fuel cell grade Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst in potassium hydroxide (aq, 1 mol dm −3 )
journal, January 2015

  • Ong, Ai Lien; Inglis, Kenneth K.; Whelligan, Daniel K.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 18
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Anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells: A review
journal, July 2011

  • Merle, Géraldine; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Kitty
  • Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 377, Issue 1-2, p. 1-35
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Anion conductive membrane performance facilitation via tethering flexible with rigid backbones using oscillational chain
journal, October 2019


Cation–Hydroxide–Water Coadsorption Inhibits the Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction
journal, October 2016

  • Chung, Hoon Taek; Martinez, Ulises; Matanovic, Ivana
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 22
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Perspective—The Next Decade of AEMFCs: Near-Term Targets to Accelerate Applied R&D
journal, May 2020

  • Thompson, Simon T.; Peterson, David; Ho, Donna
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 8
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Anion Exchange Membrane and Ionomer for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells (AMFCs)
conference, January 2008

  • Yanagi, Hiroyuki; Fukuta, Kenji
  • 214th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
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Hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly(benzimidazolium): a universal hydroxide-conducting polymer for energy conversion devices
journal, January 2016

  • Wright, Andrew G.; Fan, Jiantao; Britton, Benjamin
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 6
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Correction: Crosslinking of comb-shaped polymer anion exchange membranes via thiol–ene click chemistry
journal, January 2016

  • Zhu, Liang; Zimudzi, Tawanda J.; Li, Nanwen
  • Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 7, Issue 14
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Characterization and Chemical Stability of Anion Exchange Membranes Cross-Linked with Polar Electron-Donating Linkers
journal, January 2015

  • Amel, Alina; Smedley, Sarah B.; Dekel, Dario R.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 9
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Hydroxide based Benzyltrimethylammonium Degradation: Quantification of Rates and Degradation Technique Development
journal, January 2015

  • Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Macomber, Clay S.; Engtrakul, Chaiwat
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 4
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A Microelectrode Study of Interfacial Reactions at the Platinum-Alkaline Polymer Interface
journal, January 2015

  • Yim, Sung-Dae; Chung, Hoon T.; Chlistunoff, Jerzy
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0151506jes

Hierarchically Porous Co−N−C Cathode Catalyst Layers for Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, August 2019


On the origin of permanent performance loss of anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Electrochemical oxidation of phenyl group
journal, October 2019


Synthesis and characterization of novel anion exchange membranes based on imidazolium-type ionic liquid for alkaline fuel cells
journal, October 2010


Alternative Polymer Systems for Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMs)
journal, October 2004

  • Hickner, Michael A.; Ghassemi, Hossein; Kim, Yu Seung
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 104, Issue 10
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Mechanical endurance of polymer electrolyte membrane and PEM fuel cell durability
journal, January 2006

  • Huang, Xinyu; Solasi, Roham; Zou, Yue
  • Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 44, Issue 16
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Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity of nitrogen-doped graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotube catalysts in alkaline media
journal, December 2016


The Priority and Challenge of High-Power Performance of Low-Platinum Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, March 2016


Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2018


Long-term durability test for direct methanol fuel cell made of hydrocarbon membrane
journal, July 2010


Quantifying and elucidating the effect of CO 2 on the thermodynamics, kinetics and charge transport of AEMFCs
journal, January 2019

  • Zheng, Yiwei; Omasta, Travis J.; Peng, Xiong
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 12, Issue 9
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A comparative study of anion-exchange membranes tethered with different hetero-cycloaliphatic quaternary ammonium hydroxides
journal, January 2017

  • Dang, Hai-Son; Jannasch, Patric
  • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 5, Issue 41
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Cross-Linked Alkaline Ionic Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications
journal, December 2010

  • Lin, Bencai; Qiu, Lihua; Lu, Jianmei
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 24
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Micro-crack formation in direct methanol fuel cell electrodes
journal, December 2014


Synthesis and characterization of high performing Fe-N-C catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in Alkaline Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, January 2018


Ionomer migration within PEMFC catalyst layers induced by humidity changes
journal, December 2019


Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy reveals cation-triggered backbone degradation in polysulfone-based anion exchange membranes
journal, January 2013

  • Arges, C. G.; Ramani, V.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 7
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Unusual High Oxygen Reduction Performance in All-Carbon Electrocatalysts
journal, September 2014

  • Wei, Wei; Tao, Ying; Lv, Wei
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, Issue 1
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Cationic Side-Chain Attachment to Poly(Phenylene Oxide) Backbones for Chemically Stable and Conductive Anion Exchange Membranes
journal, May 2017


Advanced Water Management in PEFCs: Diffusion Layers with Patterned Wettability: III. Operando Characterization with Neutron Imaging
journal, January 2016

  • Forner-Cuenca, A.; Biesdorf, J.; Manzi-Orezzoli, V.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 13
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Imidazolium Cations with Exceptional Alkaline Stability: A Systematic Study of Structure–Stability Relationships
journal, July 2015

  • Hugar, Kristina M.; Kostalik, Henry A.; Coates, Geoffrey W.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b02879

Carbonate Dynamics and Opportunities With Low Temperature, Anion Exchange Membrane-Based Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Separators
journal, May 2017

  • Rigdon, William A.; Omasta, Travis J.; Lewis, Connor
  • Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4033411

Effect of contaminant mixtures in air on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance
journal, February 2019


Surface Characterization of Argon-Plasma-Modified Perfluorosulfonic Acid Membranes
journal, March 2006

  • Bae, Byungchan; Kim, Dukjoon; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 110, Issue 9
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Phosphorus-doped porous carbons as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction
journal, January 2013

  • Wu, Jiao; Yang, Zhenrong; Li, Xiaowei
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 1, Issue 34
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Effect and characterization of dopants to Raney nickel for hydrogen oxidation
journal, October 2003


High performance aliphatic-heterocyclic benzyl-quaternary ammonium radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes
journal, January 2016

  • Ponce-González, Julia; Whelligan, Daniel K.; Wang, Lianqin
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 12
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Beyond catalysis and membranes: visualizing and solving the challenge of electrode water accumulation and flooding in AEMFCs
journal, January 2018

  • Omasta, Travis J.; Park, Andrew M.; LaManna, Jacob M.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 3
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Mechanistic analysis of ammonium cation stability for alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2014

  • Mohanty, Angela D.; Bae, Chulsung
  • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 2, Issue 41
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H2/air alkaline membrane fuel cell performance and durability, using novel ionomer and non-platinum group metal cathode catalyst
journal, September 2010


Carbon Corrosion in Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: From Model Experiments to Real-Life Operation in Membrane Electrode Assemblies
journal, May 2014

  • Castanheira, Luis; Dubau, Laetitia; Mermoux, Michel
  • ACS Catalysis, Vol. 4, Issue 7
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Poly(terphenylene) Anion Exchange Membranes: The Effect of Backbone Structure on Morphology and Membrane Property
journal, April 2017


Ultrafine Pt cluster and RuO 2 heterojunction anode catalysts designed for ultra-low Pt-loading anion exchange membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2020

  • Wang, Rongyue; Li, Dongguo; Maurya, Sandip
  • Nanoscale Horizons, Vol. 5, Issue 2
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A Stable Hydroxide-Conducting Polymer
journal, June 2012

  • Thomas, Owen D.; Soo, Kristen J. W. Y.; Peckham, Timothy J.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 26
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The critical relation between chemical stability of cations and water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells environment
journal, January 2018


Effect of Water on the Stability of Quaternary Ammonium Groups for Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications
journal, May 2017


Effects of Carbon Dioxide on the Performance of Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, January 2011


A Highly Hydroxide Conductive, Chemically Stable Anion Exchange Membrane, Poly(2,6 dimethyl 1,4 phenylene oxide)- b -Poly(vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium), for Electrochemical Applications
journal, January 2016

  • Pandey, Tara P.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Yang, Yating
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0421607jes

1,2,3-Triazolium-Based Poly(2,6-Dimethyl Phenylene Oxide) Copolymers as Anion Exchange Membranes
journal, February 2016

  • Liu, Lei; He, Shuqing; Zhang, Shufang
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 8, Issue 7
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Highly quaternized polystyrene ionomers for high performance anion exchange membrane water electrolysers
journal, March 2020


Alkaline polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications
journal, January 2013

  • Wang, Yan-Jie; Qiao, Jinli; Baker, Ryan
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 42, Issue 13
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Alkaline Stability of Quaternized Diels–Alder Polyphenylenes
journal, July 2019


Defect and pyridinic nitrogen engineering of carbon-based metal-free nanomaterial toward oxygen reduction
journal, October 2018


Highly conductive and durable poly(arylene ether sulfone) anion exchange membrane with end-group cross-linking
journal, January 2017

  • Lee, Kang Hyuck; Cho, Doo Hee; Kim, Young Mi
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 10, Issue 1
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Rational design of polyaromatic ionomers for alkaline membrane fuel cells with >1 W cm −2 power density
journal, January 2018

  • Maurya, Sandip; Noh, Sangtaik; Matanovic, Ivana
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 11
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Hot topics in alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2018


High pressure pyrolyzed non-precious metal oxygen reduction catalysts for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2015

  • Sanetuntikul, Jakkid; Shanmugam, Sangaraju
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 17
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Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on heteroatom-doped nanocarbons and transition metal–nitrogen–carbon catalysts for alkaline membrane fuel cells
journal, January 2018

  • Sarapuu, Ave; Kibena-Põldsepp, Elo; Borghei, Maryam
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 3
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Robust anion conductive polymers containing perfluoroalkylene and pendant ammonium groups for high performance fuel cells
journal, January 2017

  • Ono, Hideaki; Kimura, Taro; Takano, Aoi
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, Issue 47
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Influence of Carbon Dioxide on the Performance of Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
conference, January 2010

  • Matsui, Yu; Saito, Morihiro; Tasaka, Akimasa
  • 216th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
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On the effect of temperature and surface oxidation on the kinetics of hydrogen electrode reactions on nickel in alkaline media
journal, April 2018


Analysis of the degradation mechanism of the polyarylene ether anion-exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell and water-splitting cell applications
journal, January 2017

  • Miyanishi, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Takeo
  • New Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 41, Issue 16
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Influences of flow direction, temperature and relative humidity on the performance of a representative anion exchange membrane fuel cell: A computational analysis
journal, March 2017

  • Machado, Bruno S.; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Das, Prodip K.
  • International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 42, Issue 9
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Effects of Pd Nanoparticle Size and Solution Reducer Strength on Pd/C Electrocatalyst Stability in Alkaline Electrolyte
journal, January 2016

  • Zadick, Anicet; Dubau, Laetitia; Demirci, Umit B.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 8
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pH and Alkali Cation Effects on the Pt Cyclic Voltammogram Explained Using Density Functional Theory
journal, December 2015

  • McCrum, Ian T.; Janik, Michael J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b10979

Mathematical Modeling of the Concentration Profile of Carbonate Ions in an Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
conference, January 2010

  • Siroma, Zyun; Watanabe, Shin; Yasuda, Kazuaki
  • 218th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3484685

Comb-shaped ether-free poly(biphenyl indole) based alkaline membrane
journal, October 2019


Anion exchange membranes based on quaternized polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells
journal, March 2010


An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes
journal, January 2017

  • Wang, Lianqin; Magliocca, Emanuele; Cunningham, Emma L.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 19, Issue 3
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Nitrogen-doped Carbon-CoO x Nanohybrids: A Precious Metal Free Cathode that Exceeds 1.0 W cm −2 Peak Power and 100 h Life in Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, November 2018

  • Peng, Xiong; Omasta, Travis J.; Magliocca, Emanuele
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 58, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201811099

A high conductivity ultrathin anion-exchange membrane with 500+ h alkali stability for use in alkaline membrane fuel cells that can achieve 2 W cm −2 at 80 °C
journal, January 2018

  • Wang, Lianqin; Bellini, Marco; Miller, Hamish A.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8TA04783A

Huge Instability of Pt/C Catalysts in Alkaline Medium
journal, July 2015


Crosslinked high-performance anion exchange membranes based on poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene)
journal, April 2018


Alkali-stable and highly anion conducting poly(phenylene oxide)s carrying quaternary piperidinium cations
journal, January 2016

  • Dang, Hai-Son; Jannasch, Patric
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue 30
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6TA01905F

Beyond 1.0 W cm −2 Performance without Platinum: The Beginning of a New Era in Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, January 2018

  • Omasta, Travis J.; Peng, Xiong; Miller, Hamish A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 165, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0071815jes

The Importance of Water Transport in High Conductivity and High-Power Alkaline Fuel Cells
journal, October 2019

  • Mandal, Mrinmay; Huang, Garrett; Hassan, Noor Ul
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0022005JES

Stability Limits of Ni-Based Hydrogen Oxidation Electrocatalysts for Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
journal, June 2019

  • Davydova, Elena S.; Speck, Florian D.; Paul, Michael T. Y.
  • ACS Catalysis, Vol. 9, Issue 8
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Efficient Pt/carbon electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Avoid chloride-based Pt salts!
journal, October 2013


In Situ Analysis of Performance Degradation of a PEMFC under Nonsaturated Humidification
journal, January 2005

  • Yu, Jingrong; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Yoshikawa, Yusuke
  • Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 8, Issue 3
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Long-term hydrogen oxidation catalysts in alkaline fuel cells
journal, April 2000


Anion Exchange Membranes’ Evolution toward High Hydroxide Ion Conductivity and Alkaline Resiliency
journal, June 2018


When cubic nanoparticles get spherical: An Identical Location Transmission Electron Microscopy case study with Pd in alkaline media
journal, November 2014


In situ preparation of hollow Mo 2 C–C hybrid microspheres as bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions
journal, January 2016

  • Luo, Yong; Wang, Zhangjun; Fu, Yue
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue 32
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The Corrosion of Carbon Black Anodes in Alkaline Electrolyte
journal, January 1989

  • Staud, Norbert
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 12
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Porous Hollow PtNi/C Electrocatalysts: Carbon Support Considerations To Meet Performance and Stability Requirements
journal, January 2018


Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges
journal, January 2018


Single Cobalt Atom and N Codoped Carbon Nanofibers as Highly Durable Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
journal, September 2017


Toward Improved Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Performance Using Quaternized Aryl-Ether Free Polyaromatics
journal, March 2018


Synthesis and properties of alkaline stable pyridinium containing anion exchange membranes
journal, January 2014

  • Vöge, Andrea; Deimede, Valadoula; Kallitsis, Joannis K.
  • RSC Adv., Vol. 4, Issue 85
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Fluorine-enriched mesoporous carbon as efficient oxygen reduction catalyst: understanding the defects in porous matrix and fuel cell applications
journal, January 2019

  • Parthiban, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, Balasubramaniam; Karthikeyan, J.
  • Nanoscale Advances, Vol. 1, Issue 12
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Radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes: the switch from low- to high-density polyethylene leads to remarkably enhanced fuel cell performance
journal, January 2019

  • Wang, Lianqin; Peng, Xiong; Mustain, William E.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 12, Issue 5
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Durability of Membrane Electrode Assemblies under Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Cold-Start Cycling
journal, January 2008

  • Yang, X. G.; Tabuchi, Y.; Kagami, F.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 155, Issue 7
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Stability of carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles in alkaline media: A case study of graphitized and more amorphous supports
journal, May 2017