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Title: Efficient phloem remobilization of Zn protects apple trees during the early stages of Zn deficiency

Abstract

Apple trees are extensively cultivated worldwide but are often affected by zinc (Zn) deficiency. Limited knowledge regarding Zn remobilization within fruit crops has hampered the development of efficient strategies for providing adequate amounts of Zn. In the present study, Zn distribution and remobilization were compared among apple trees cultivated under different Zn conditions. Without Zn application, plants showed visible symptoms of Zn deficiency at the shoot tips after 1 year but appeared to grow normally during the first 6 months (early stage of Zn deficiency). Compared with apple plants under sufficient Zn treatment, plants suffering from early-stage Zn deficiency showed preferential Zn distribution to young leaves and higher Zn levels in phloem, demonstrating that hidden Zn deficiency triggers a highly efficient remobilization of Zn in this species. The in vivo Zn-nicotianamine complex in phloem tissues, combined with the significant enhanced expression of MdNAS3 and MdYSL6 , suggested a positive role for nicotianamine in the phloem remobilization of Zn. These results strongly suggest that a proportion of Zn in the old leaves of apple trees can be efficiently remobilized by phloem transport to the shoot tips, partially in the form of Zn-nicotianamine, thus protecting apple trees against the early stages ofmore » Zn deficiency.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)
  2. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1637927
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 31471939
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Plant, Cell and Environment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0140-7791
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; apple plants; distribution; fruit crops; micro X‐ray fluorescence; nicotianamine; phloem; remobilization; speciation; zinc; zinc deficiency

Citation Formats

Xie, Ruohan, Zhao, Jianqi, Lu, Lingli, Ge, Jun, Brown, Patrick H., Wei, Shuai, Wang, Runze, Qiao, Yabei, Webb, Samuel M., and Tian, Shengke. Efficient phloem remobilization of Zn protects apple trees during the early stages of Zn deficiency. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13621.
Xie, Ruohan, Zhao, Jianqi, Lu, Lingli, Ge, Jun, Brown, Patrick H., Wei, Shuai, Wang, Runze, Qiao, Yabei, Webb, Samuel M., & Tian, Shengke. Efficient phloem remobilization of Zn protects apple trees during the early stages of Zn deficiency. United States. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13621
Xie, Ruohan, Zhao, Jianqi, Lu, Lingli, Ge, Jun, Brown, Patrick H., Wei, Shuai, Wang, Runze, Qiao, Yabei, Webb, Samuel M., and Tian, Shengke. Sat . "Efficient phloem remobilization of Zn protects apple trees during the early stages of Zn deficiency". United States. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13621. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1637927.
@article{osti_1637927,
title = {Efficient phloem remobilization of Zn protects apple trees during the early stages of Zn deficiency},
author = {Xie, Ruohan and Zhao, Jianqi and Lu, Lingli and Ge, Jun and Brown, Patrick H. and Wei, Shuai and Wang, Runze and Qiao, Yabei and Webb, Samuel M. and Tian, Shengke},
abstractNote = {Apple trees are extensively cultivated worldwide but are often affected by zinc (Zn) deficiency. Limited knowledge regarding Zn remobilization within fruit crops has hampered the development of efficient strategies for providing adequate amounts of Zn. In the present study, Zn distribution and remobilization were compared among apple trees cultivated under different Zn conditions. Without Zn application, plants showed visible symptoms of Zn deficiency at the shoot tips after 1 year but appeared to grow normally during the first 6 months (early stage of Zn deficiency). Compared with apple plants under sufficient Zn treatment, plants suffering from early-stage Zn deficiency showed preferential Zn distribution to young leaves and higher Zn levels in phloem, demonstrating that hidden Zn deficiency triggers a highly efficient remobilization of Zn in this species. The in vivo Zn-nicotianamine complex in phloem tissues, combined with the significant enhanced expression of MdNAS3 and MdYSL6 , suggested a positive role for nicotianamine in the phloem remobilization of Zn. These results strongly suggest that a proportion of Zn in the old leaves of apple trees can be efficiently remobilized by phloem transport to the shoot tips, partially in the form of Zn-nicotianamine, thus protecting apple trees against the early stages of Zn deficiency.},
doi = {10.1111/pce.13621},
journal = {Plant, Cell and Environment},
number = 12,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 2 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1: Photograph of apple plants under (a) acute zinc (Zn) deficiency (0/0), (b) hidden Zn deficiency (5/0), (c) healthy control (5/5) and (d) high-Zn (25/25) conditions. Typical Zn deficiency symptoms of short internodes and small narrow leaves with interveinal chlorosis were apparent (a) compared with healthy trees at amore » sufficient Zn level (c) or high-Zn levels (d). The hidden Zn deficiency tree did not exhibit typical Zn-deficient symptoms (b)« less

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