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Title: Phasor Measurement Units Optimal Placement and Performance Limits for Fault Localization

Abstract

Here, the performance limits of faults localization are investigated using synchrophasor data. The focus is on a non-trivial operating regime where the number of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) sensors available is insufficient to have full observability of the grid state. Proposed analysis uses the Kullback Leibler (KL) divergence between the distributions corresponding to different fault location hypotheses associated with the observation model. This analysis shows that the most likely locations are concentrated in clusters of buses more tightly connected to the actual fault site akin to graph communities. Consequently, a PMU placement strategy is derived that achieves a near-optimal resolution for localizing faults for a given number of sensors. The problem is also analyzed from the perspective of sampling a graph signal, and how the placement of the PMUs i.e. the spatial sampling pattern and the topological characteristic of the grid affect the ability to successfully localize faults. To highlight the superior performance of presented fault localization and placement algorithms, the proposed strategy is applied to a modified IEEE 34, IEEE-123 bus test cases and to data from a real distribution grid. Additionally, the detection of cyber-physical attacks is also examined where PMU data and relevant Supervisory Control and Datamore » Acquisition (SCADA) network traffic information are compared to determine if a network breach has affected the integrity of the system information and/or operations.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4];  [2];  [4]
  1. Invenia Labs., Cambridge (UK)
  2. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Electrical Computer and Energy Engineering
  3. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Sloan School of Management
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1637305
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; OE0000780
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 38; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0733-8716
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; phasor measurement units; voltage measurement; sensors; circuit faults; current measurement; observability; fault location; phase measurement; phasor measurement; power distribution faults; power grids; signal sampling; spatial sampling pattern; fault localization; synchrophasor data; Kullback Leibler divergence; PMU placement strategy; data acquisition network traffic information; phasor measurement unit sensors; distribution grid state; KL divergence; graph signal sampling; modified IEEE 34 bus test cases; modified IEEE-123 bus test cases; supervisory control and data acquisition network traffic information; SCADA network traffic information; Cluster detection; cyber-physical security; identification; intrusion detection; optimal PMU placement

Citation Formats

Jamei, Mahdi, Ramakrishna, Raksha, Tesfay, Teklemariam, Gentz, Reinhard, Roberts, Ciaran, Scaglione, Anna, and Peisert, Sean. Phasor Measurement Units Optimal Placement and Performance Limits for Fault Localization. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2019.2951971.
Jamei, Mahdi, Ramakrishna, Raksha, Tesfay, Teklemariam, Gentz, Reinhard, Roberts, Ciaran, Scaglione, Anna, & Peisert, Sean. Phasor Measurement Units Optimal Placement and Performance Limits for Fault Localization. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2019.2951971
Jamei, Mahdi, Ramakrishna, Raksha, Tesfay, Teklemariam, Gentz, Reinhard, Roberts, Ciaran, Scaglione, Anna, and Peisert, Sean. Wed . "Phasor Measurement Units Optimal Placement and Performance Limits for Fault Localization". United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2019.2951971. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1637305.
@article{osti_1637305,
title = {Phasor Measurement Units Optimal Placement and Performance Limits for Fault Localization},
author = {Jamei, Mahdi and Ramakrishna, Raksha and Tesfay, Teklemariam and Gentz, Reinhard and Roberts, Ciaran and Scaglione, Anna and Peisert, Sean},
abstractNote = {Here, the performance limits of faults localization are investigated using synchrophasor data. The focus is on a non-trivial operating regime where the number of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) sensors available is insufficient to have full observability of the grid state. Proposed analysis uses the Kullback Leibler (KL) divergence between the distributions corresponding to different fault location hypotheses associated with the observation model. This analysis shows that the most likely locations are concentrated in clusters of buses more tightly connected to the actual fault site akin to graph communities. Consequently, a PMU placement strategy is derived that achieves a near-optimal resolution for localizing faults for a given number of sensors. The problem is also analyzed from the perspective of sampling a graph signal, and how the placement of the PMUs i.e. the spatial sampling pattern and the topological characteristic of the grid affect the ability to successfully localize faults. To highlight the superior performance of presented fault localization and placement algorithms, the proposed strategy is applied to a modified IEEE 34, IEEE-123 bus test cases and to data from a real distribution grid. Additionally, the detection of cyber-physical attacks is also examined where PMU data and relevant Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network traffic information are compared to determine if a network breach has affected the integrity of the system information and/or operations.},
doi = {10.1109/JSAC.2019.2951971},
journal = {IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 38,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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