skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Deep XMM–Newton observations of the most distant SPT-SZ galaxy cluster

Abstract

ABSTRACT We present results from a 577 ks XMM–Newton observation of SPT-CL J0459–4947, the most distant cluster detected in the South Pole Telescope 2500 square degree (SPT-SZ) survey, and currently the most distant cluster discovered through its Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect. The data confirm the cluster’s high redshift, z = 1.71 ± 0.02, in agreement with earlier, less precise optical/IR photometric estimates. From the gas density profile, we estimate a characteristic mass of $$M_{500}=(1.8\pm 0.2)\times 10^{14}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$$; cluster emission is detected above the background to a radius of $$\sim \!2.2\, r_{500}$$, or approximately the virial radius. The intracluster gas is characterized by an emission-weighted average temperature of 7.2 ± 0.3 keV and metallicity with respect to Solar of $$Z/\, Z_{\odot }=0.37\pm 0.08$$. For the first time at such high redshift, this deep data set provides a measurement of metallicity outside the cluster centre; at radii $$r\gt 0.3\, r_{500}$$, we find $$Z/\, Z_{\odot }=0.33\pm 0.17$$ in good agreement with precise measurements at similar radii in the most nearby clusters, supporting an early enrichment scenario in which the bulk of the cluster gas is enriched to a universal metallicity prior to cluster formation, with little to no evolution thereafter. The leverage provided by the high redshift of this cluster tightens by a factor of 2 constraints on evolving metallicity models, when combined with previous measurements at lower redshifts.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]
  1. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  2. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  3. Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
  4. HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
  6. Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1635044
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1756925
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 496 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxy clusters; intracluster medium; galaxy cluster x-rays

Citation Formats

Mantz, Adam B., Allen, Steven W., Morris, R. Glenn, Canning, Rebecca E. A., Bayliss, Matthew, Bleem, Lindsey E., Floyd, Benjamin T., and McDonald, Michael. Deep XMM–Newton observations of the most distant SPT-SZ galaxy cluster. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa1581.
Mantz, Adam B., Allen, Steven W., Morris, R. Glenn, Canning, Rebecca E. A., Bayliss, Matthew, Bleem, Lindsey E., Floyd, Benjamin T., & McDonald, Michael. Deep XMM–Newton observations of the most distant SPT-SZ galaxy cluster. United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1581
Mantz, Adam B., Allen, Steven W., Morris, R. Glenn, Canning, Rebecca E. A., Bayliss, Matthew, Bleem, Lindsey E., Floyd, Benjamin T., and McDonald, Michael. Fri . "Deep XMM–Newton observations of the most distant SPT-SZ galaxy cluster". United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1581.
@article{osti_1635044,
title = {Deep XMM–Newton observations of the most distant SPT-SZ galaxy cluster},
author = {Mantz, Adam B. and Allen, Steven W. and Morris, R. Glenn and Canning, Rebecca E. A. and Bayliss, Matthew and Bleem, Lindsey E. and Floyd, Benjamin T. and McDonald, Michael},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We present results from a 577 ks XMM–Newton observation of SPT-CL J0459–4947, the most distant cluster detected in the South Pole Telescope 2500 square degree (SPT-SZ) survey, and currently the most distant cluster discovered through its Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect. The data confirm the cluster’s high redshift, z = 1.71 ± 0.02, in agreement with earlier, less precise optical/IR photometric estimates. From the gas density profile, we estimate a characteristic mass of $M_{500}=(1.8\pm 0.2)\times 10^{14}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$; cluster emission is detected above the background to a radius of $\sim \!2.2\, r_{500}$, or approximately the virial radius. The intracluster gas is characterized by an emission-weighted average temperature of 7.2 ± 0.3 keV and metallicity with respect to Solar of $Z/\, Z_{\odot }=0.37\pm 0.08$. For the first time at such high redshift, this deep data set provides a measurement of metallicity outside the cluster centre; at radii $r\gt 0.3\, r_{500}$, we find $Z/\, Z_{\odot }=0.33\pm 0.17$ in good agreement with precise measurements at similar radii in the most nearby clusters, supporting an early enrichment scenario in which the bulk of the cluster gas is enriched to a universal metallicity prior to cluster formation, with little to no evolution thereafter. The leverage provided by the high redshift of this cluster tightens by a factor of 2 constraints on evolving metallicity models, when combined with previous measurements at lower redshifts.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/staa1581},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 496,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1581

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Distant galaxy clusters in the XMM Large Scale Structure survey
journal, January 2013

  • Willis, J. P.; Clerc, N.; Bremer, M. N.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 430, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts540

Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – I. Sample selection
journal, March 2015

  • Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv219

An XMM-Newton spatially-resolved study of metal abundance evolution in distant galaxy clusters
journal, January 2012


The metallicity of the intracluster medium over cosmic time: further evidence for early enrichment
journal, August 2017

  • Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2200

The redshift evolution of massive galaxy clusters in the MACSIS simulations
journal, October 2016

  • Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Henson, Monique A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2722

Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts
journal, April 2017

  • Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Mantz, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 469, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx919

The Chemical Composition of the Sun
journal, September 2009


The Simons Observatory: science goals and forecasts
journal, February 2019

  • Ade, Peter; Aguirre, James; Ahmed, Zeeshan
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 02
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2019/02/056

HI4PI: a full-sky H i survey based on EBHIS and GASS
journal, October 2016


IDCS J1426.5+3508: THE MOST MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER AT z > 1.5
journal, January 2016


The history of chemical enrichment in the intracluster medium from cosmological simulations
journal, February 2017

  • Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx444

X-Ray Properties of SPT-selected Galaxy Clusters at 0.2 < z < 1.5 Observed with XMM-Newton
journal, January 2019


A uniform metallicity in the outskirts of massive, nearby galaxy clusters
journal, June 2017

  • Urban, O.; Werner, N.; Allen, S. W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1542

XMM-Newton and Chandra cross-calibration using HIFLUGCS galaxy clusters : Systematic temperature differences and cosmological impact⋆
journal, February 2015


Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout
journal, March 2016

  • Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-016-1575-z

Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters in the 2500 Square-Degree Spt-Sz Survey
journal, November 2016


On the iron content in rich nearby clusters of galaxies
journal, April 2004


A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies
journal, October 2013

  • Werner, Norbert; Urban, Ondrej; Simionescu, Aurora
  • Nature, Vol. 502, Issue 7473
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12646

On the Cluster Physics of Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich and X-Ray Surveys. iii. Measurement Biases and Cosmological Evolution of gas and Stellar mass Fractions
journal, October 2013


Radial metallicity profiles for a large sample of galaxy clusters observed with XMM-Newton
journal, June 2008


Athena X-IFU synthetic observations of galaxy clusters to probe the chemical enrichment of the Universe
journal, December 2018


Radial metal abundance profiles in the intra-cluster medium of cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals
journal, July 2017


MACS: A Quest for the Most Massive Galaxy Clusters in the Universe
journal, June 2001

  • Ebeling, H.; Edge, A. C.; Henry, J. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 553, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/320958

THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM METALLICITY IN SUNYAEV ZEL’DOVICH-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS AT 0 < z < 1.5
journal, July 2016


The enrichment history of the intracluster medium: a Bayesian approach
journal, September 2012


The Remarkable Similarity of Massive Galaxy Clusters from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 1.9
journal, June 2017


The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey. I. Survey Overview and a Catalog of >2000 Galaxy Clusters at z ≃ 1
journal, February 2019

  • Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Brodwin, Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aafad2

A mature cluster with X-ray emission at z = 2.07
journal, January 2011


The Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI: Final data release of the combined LDS and IAR surveys with improved stray-radiation corrections
journal, September 2005


Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – III. Thermodynamic profiles and scaling relations
journal, January 2016

  • Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 456, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2899

The XXL Survey: XX. The 365 cluster catalogue★★★
journal, November 2018


Planck 2015 results : XXVII. The second
journal, September 2016


X-ray analysis of the galaxy group UGC 03957 beyond R 200 with Suzaku
journal, July 2016


Evolution and clustering of rich clusters
journal, September 1986


The Evolution of X‐Ray Clusters in a Low‐Density Universe
journal, August 1998

  • Eke, Vincent R.; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 503, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/306008

Scaling Relations for Galaxy Clusters: Properties and Evolution
journal, June 2013


Simulating the effect of active galactic nuclei feedback on the metal enrichment of galaxy clusters
journal, January 2010


Cross-calibration of the X-ray instruments onboard the Chandra , INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift , and XMM- Newton observatories using G21.5–0.9
journal, November 2010


Galaxy Clusters Discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect in the 2500-Square-Degree Spt-Sz Survey
journal, January 2015

  • Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 216, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/27

Iron abundance distribution in the hot gas of merging galaxy clusters
journal, August 2019


The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich selected galaxy clusters at 148 GHz from three seasons of data
journal, July 2013

  • Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Marriage, Tobias A.
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2013, Issue 07
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/07/008

The xxl Survey. v. Detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect of the Redshift 1.9 Galaxy Cluster Xlssu J021744.1–034536 with Carma
journal, October 2014


JKCS 041: a Coma cluster progenitor at z = 1.803
journal, May 2014


The ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample — IV. The extended sample
journal, October 2000


The relationship between cooling flows and metallicity measurements for X-ray-luminous clusters
journal, July 1998


The evolution of the spatially resolved metal abundance in galaxy clusters up to z = 1.4
journal, June 2015


Cosmological Parameters from Observations of Galaxy Clusters
journal, September 2011


Parameter estimation in astronomy through application of the likelihood ratio
journal, March 1979


Baryon census in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters
journal, March 2013

  • Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 431, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt265

X-ray spectroscopy of the Virgo Cluster out to the virial radius: Virgo Cluster out to the virial radius
journal, April 2011


Images, Structural Properties, and Metal Abundances of Galaxy Clusters Observed with Chandra ACIS‐I at 0.1 < z < 1.3
journal, January 2008

  • Maughan, B. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 174, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/521225

Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter
journal, February 2012


Redshift Evolution in the iron Abundance of the Intracluster Medium
journal, May 2009

  • Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.; Butler, Suzanne C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 698, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/698/1/317

Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances
journal, November 1992

  • Balucinska-Church, Monika; McCammon, Dan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 400
  • DOI: 10.1086/172032

Tracing the evolution in the iron content of the intra-cluster medium
journal, November 2006


A UNIFORM CONTRIBUTION OF CORE-COLLAPSE AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE TO THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT PATTERN IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER
journal, September 2015


A systematic analysis of the XMM-Newton background: II. Properties of the in-Field-Of-View excess component
journal, May 2017

  • Salvetti, David; Marelli, Martino; Gastaldello, Fabio
  • Experimental Astronomy, Vol. 44, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10686-017-9539-0

The chemical evolution of galaxy clusters: Dissecting the iron mass budget of the intracluster medium
journal, May 2020


Thermodynamics of the coma Cluster Outskirts
journal, August 2013


Sunyaev-Zel’dovich detection of the galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 1.99: The pressure profile in uv space
journal, September 2019


The XXL Survey: XVII. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich properties of the redshift 2.0 galaxy cluster XLSSC 122★★★
journal, November 2018


Testing X‐Ray Measurements of Galaxy Clusters with Cosmological Simulations
journal, January 2007

  • Nagai, Daisuke; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Kravtsov, Andrey V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 655, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/509868

SPT-3G: a next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization experiment on the South Pole telescope
conference, July 2014

  • Benson, B. A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2057305

Weighing the giants– V. Galaxy cluster scaling relations
journal, September 2016

  • Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 463, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2250

Galaxy populations in the most distant SPT-SZ clusters: I. Environmental quenching in massive clusters at 1.4 ≲
journal, February 2019


Spectroscopic confirmation of a mature galaxy cluster at a redshift of 2
journal, January 2020


The ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray (REFLEX) Galaxy cluster survey: V. The cluster catalogue
journal, September 2004


Cosmology dependence of galaxy cluster scaling relations
journal, April 2020

  • Singh, Priyanka; Saro, Alex; Costanzi, Matteo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 494, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa1004

A catalog of galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton
journal, October 2007