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Title: The Great Markarian 421 Flare of 2010 February: Multiwavelength Variability and Correlation Studies

Abstract

We report on variability and correlation studies using multiwavelength observations of the blazar Mrk 421 during the month of February, 2010 when an extraordinary flare reaching a level of ~27 Crab Units above 1 TeV was measured in very-highenergy (VHE) γ-rays with the VERITAS observatory. This is the highest flux state for Mrk 421 ever observed in VHE γ-rays. Data are analyzed from a coordinated campaign across multiple instruments including VHE γ-ray (VERITAS, MAGIC), high-energy (HE) γ-ray (Fermi-LAT), X-ray (Swift, RXTE, MAXI), optical (including the GASP-WEBT collaboration and polarization data) and radio (Mets¨ahovi, OVRO, UMRAO). Light curves are produced spanning multiple days before and after the peak of the VHE flare, including over several flare ‘decline’ epochs. The main flare statistics allow 2-minute time bins to be constructed in both the VHE and optical bands enabling a cross-correlation analysis that shows evidence for an optical lag of ~25–55 minutes, the first time-lagged correlation between these bands reported on such short timescales. Limits on the Doppler factor (δ & 33) and the size of the emission region (δ -1RB . 3.8 × 1013 cm) are obtained from the fast variability observed by VERITAS during the main flare. Analysis of 10-minute-binned VHEmore » and X-ray data over the decline epochs shows an extraordinary range of behavior in the flux-flux relationship: from linear to quadratic to lack of correlation to anti-correlation. Taken together, these detailed observations of an unprecedented flare seen in Mrk 421 are difficult to explain by the classic single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
VERITAS Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; Multiwavelength Partners
OSTI Identifier:
1633953
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 890; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Abeysekara, A. U., Benbow, W., Bird, R., Brill, A., Brose, R., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Christiansen, J. L., Chromey, A. J., Daniel, M. K., Dumm, J., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gent, A., Gillanders, G. H., Giuri, C., Gueta, O., Hassan, T., Hervet, O., Holder, J., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kelley-Hoskins, N., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Krause, M., Krennrich, F., Kumar, S., Lang, M. J., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Nelson, T., Nieto, D., Nievas-Rosillo, M., O’Brien, S., Ong, R. A., Otte, A. N., Park, N., Petrashyk, A., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Prado, R. R., Pueschel, E., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reynolds, P. T., Richards, G. T., Roache, E., Rovero, A. C., Rulten, C., Sadeh, I., Santander, M., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Stevenson, B., Sushch, I., Tyler, J., Vassiliev, V. V., Wakely, S. P., Weinstein, A., Wells, R. M., Wilcox, P., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Zitzer, B., Acciari, V. A., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Arbet Engels, A., Baack, D., Babić, A., Banerjee, B., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bellizzi, L., Bernardini, E., Berti, A., Besenrieder, J., Bhattacharyya, W., Bigongiari, C., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnoli, G., Busetto, G., Carosi, R., Ceribella, G., Chai, Y., Cikota, S., Colak, S. M., Colin, U., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., D’Elia, V., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Lotto, B., Delfino, M., Delgado, J., Di Pierro, F., Do Souto Espiñera, E., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Elsaesser, D., Fallah Ramazani, V., Fattorini, A., Fernández-Barral, A., Ferrara, G., Fidalgo, D., Foffano, L., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., Gallozzi, S., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Gasparyan, S., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., Green, D., Guberman, D., Hadasch, D., Hahn, A., Herrera, J., Hoang, J., Hrupec, D., Inoue, S., Ishio, K., Iwamura, Y., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., Lamastra, A., Lelas, D., Leone, F., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., Longo, F., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B., Maggio, C., Majumdar, P., Makariev, M., Mallamaci, M., Maneva, G., Manganaro, M., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Masuda, S., Mazin, D., Miceli, D., Minev, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Molina, E., Moralejo, A., Morcuende, D., Moreno, V., Moretti, E., Munar-Adrover, P., Neustroev, V., Niedzwiecki, A., Nievas Rosillo, M., Nigro, C., Nilsson, K., Ninci, D., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Nogués, L., Nöthe, M., Paiano, S., Palacio, J., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Peñil, P., Peresano, M., Persic, M., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Righi, C., Rugliancich, A., Saha, L., Sahakyan, N., Saito, T., Satalecka, K., Schweizer, T., Sitarek, J., Šnidarić, I., Sobczynska, D., Somero, A., Stamerra, A., Strom, D., Strzys, M., Sun, S., Surić, T., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Teshima, M., Torres-Albà, N., Tsujimoto, S., van Scherpenberg, J., Vanzo, G., Vazquez Acosta, M., Vovk, I., Will, M., Zarić, D., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Carini, M. T., Horan, D., Jordan, B., Jorstad, S. G., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Madejski, G., Marscher, A. P., Max-Moerbeck, W., Moody, J. Ward, Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Raiteri, C. M., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Sigua, L. A., Smith, P. S., Talvikki, H., Tammi, J., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., and Villata, M. The Great Markarian 421 Flare of 2010 February: Multiwavelength Variability and Correlation Studies. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612.
Abeysekara, A. U., Benbow, W., Bird, R., Brill, A., Brose, R., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Christiansen, J. L., Chromey, A. J., Daniel, M. K., Dumm, J., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gent, A., Gillanders, G. H., Giuri, C., Gueta, O., Hassan, T., Hervet, O., Holder, J., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kelley-Hoskins, N., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Krause, M., Krennrich, F., Kumar, S., Lang, M. J., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Nelson, T., Nieto, D., Nievas-Rosillo, M., O’Brien, S., Ong, R. A., Otte, A. N., Park, N., Petrashyk, A., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Prado, R. R., Pueschel, E., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reynolds, P. T., Richards, G. T., Roache, E., Rovero, A. C., Rulten, C., Sadeh, I., Santander, M., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Stevenson, B., Sushch, I., Tyler, J., Vassiliev, V. V., Wakely, S. P., Weinstein, A., Wells, R. M., Wilcox, P., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Zitzer, B., Acciari, V. A., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Arbet Engels, A., Baack, D., Babić, A., Banerjee, B., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bellizzi, L., Bernardini, E., Berti, A., Besenrieder, J., Bhattacharyya, W., Bigongiari, C., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnoli, G., Busetto, G., Carosi, R., Ceribella, G., Chai, Y., Cikota, S., Colak, S. M., Colin, U., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., D’Elia, V., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Lotto, B., Delfino, M., Delgado, J., Di Pierro, F., Do Souto Espiñera, E., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Elsaesser, D., Fallah Ramazani, V., Fattorini, A., Fernández-Barral, A., Ferrara, G., Fidalgo, D., Foffano, L., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., Gallozzi, S., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Gasparyan, S., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., Green, D., Guberman, D., Hadasch, D., Hahn, A., Herrera, J., Hoang, J., Hrupec, D., Inoue, S., Ishio, K., Iwamura, Y., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., Lamastra, A., Lelas, D., Leone, F., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., Longo, F., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B., Maggio, C., Majumdar, P., Makariev, M., Mallamaci, M., Maneva, G., Manganaro, M., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Masuda, S., Mazin, D., Miceli, D., Minev, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Molina, E., Moralejo, A., Morcuende, D., Moreno, V., Moretti, E., Munar-Adrover, P., Neustroev, V., Niedzwiecki, A., Nievas Rosillo, M., Nigro, C., Nilsson, K., Ninci, D., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Nogués, L., Nöthe, M., Paiano, S., Palacio, J., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Peñil, P., Peresano, M., Persic, M., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Righi, C., Rugliancich, A., Saha, L., Sahakyan, N., Saito, T., Satalecka, K., Schweizer, T., Sitarek, J., Šnidarić, I., Sobczynska, D., Somero, A., Stamerra, A., Strom, D., Strzys, M., Sun, S., Surić, T., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Teshima, M., Torres-Albà, N., Tsujimoto, S., van Scherpenberg, J., Vanzo, G., Vazquez Acosta, M., Vovk, I., Will, M., Zarić, D., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Carini, M. T., Horan, D., Jordan, B., Jorstad, S. G., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Madejski, G., Marscher, A. P., Max-Moerbeck, W., Moody, J. Ward, Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Raiteri, C. M., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Sigua, L. A., Smith, P. S., Talvikki, H., Tammi, J., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., & Villata, M. The Great Markarian 421 Flare of 2010 February: Multiwavelength Variability and Correlation Studies. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612
Abeysekara, A. U., Benbow, W., Bird, R., Brill, A., Brose, R., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Christiansen, J. L., Chromey, A. J., Daniel, M. K., Dumm, J., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gent, A., Gillanders, G. H., Giuri, C., Gueta, O., Hassan, T., Hervet, O., Holder, J., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kelley-Hoskins, N., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Krause, M., Krennrich, F., Kumar, S., Lang, M. J., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Nelson, T., Nieto, D., Nievas-Rosillo, M., O’Brien, S., Ong, R. A., Otte, A. N., Park, N., Petrashyk, A., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Prado, R. R., Pueschel, E., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reynolds, P. T., Richards, G. T., Roache, E., Rovero, A. C., Rulten, C., Sadeh, I., Santander, M., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Stevenson, B., Sushch, I., Tyler, J., Vassiliev, V. V., Wakely, S. P., Weinstein, A., Wells, R. M., Wilcox, P., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Zitzer, B., Acciari, V. A., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Arbet Engels, A., Baack, D., Babić, A., Banerjee, B., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bellizzi, L., Bernardini, E., Berti, A., Besenrieder, J., Bhattacharyya, W., Bigongiari, C., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnoli, G., Busetto, G., Carosi, R., Ceribella, G., Chai, Y., Cikota, S., Colak, S. M., Colin, U., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., D’Elia, V., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Lotto, B., Delfino, M., Delgado, J., Di Pierro, F., Do Souto Espiñera, E., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Elsaesser, D., Fallah Ramazani, V., Fattorini, A., Fernández-Barral, A., Ferrara, G., Fidalgo, D., Foffano, L., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., Gallozzi, S., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Gasparyan, S., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., Green, D., Guberman, D., Hadasch, D., Hahn, A., Herrera, J., Hoang, J., Hrupec, D., Inoue, S., Ishio, K., Iwamura, Y., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., Lamastra, A., Lelas, D., Leone, F., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., Longo, F., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B., Maggio, C., Majumdar, P., Makariev, M., Mallamaci, M., Maneva, G., Manganaro, M., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Masuda, S., Mazin, D., Miceli, D., Minev, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Molina, E., Moralejo, A., Morcuende, D., Moreno, V., Moretti, E., Munar-Adrover, P., Neustroev, V., Niedzwiecki, A., Nievas Rosillo, M., Nigro, C., Nilsson, K., Ninci, D., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Nogués, L., Nöthe, M., Paiano, S., Palacio, J., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Peñil, P., Peresano, M., Persic, M., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Righi, C., Rugliancich, A., Saha, L., Sahakyan, N., Saito, T., Satalecka, K., Schweizer, T., Sitarek, J., Šnidarić, I., Sobczynska, D., Somero, A., Stamerra, A., Strom, D., Strzys, M., Sun, S., Surić, T., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Teshima, M., Torres-Albà, N., Tsujimoto, S., van Scherpenberg, J., Vanzo, G., Vazquez Acosta, M., Vovk, I., Will, M., Zarić, D., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Carini, M. T., Horan, D., Jordan, B., Jorstad, S. G., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Madejski, G., Marscher, A. P., Max-Moerbeck, W., Moody, J. Ward, Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Raiteri, C. M., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Sigua, L. A., Smith, P. S., Talvikki, H., Tammi, J., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., and Villata, M. Mon . "The Great Markarian 421 Flare of 2010 February: Multiwavelength Variability and Correlation Studies". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1633953.
@article{osti_1633953,
title = {The Great Markarian 421 Flare of 2010 February: Multiwavelength Variability and Correlation Studies},
author = {Abeysekara, A. U. and Benbow, W. and Bird, R. and Brill, A. and Brose, R. and Buchovecky, M. and Buckley, J. H. and Christiansen, J. L. and Chromey, A. J. and Daniel, M. K. and Dumm, J. and Falcone, A. and Feng, Q. and Finley, J. P. and Fortson, L. and Furniss, A. and Galante, N. and Gent, A. and Gillanders, G. H. and Giuri, C. and Gueta, O. and Hassan, T. and Hervet, O. and Holder, J. and Hughes, G. and Humensky, T. B. and Johnson, C. A. and Kaaret, P. and Kar, P. and Kelley-Hoskins, N. and Kertzman, M. and Kieda, D. and Krause, M. and Krennrich, F. and Kumar, S. and Lang, M. J. and Moriarty, P. and Mukherjee, R. and Nelson, T. and Nieto, D. and Nievas-Rosillo, M. and O’Brien, S. and Ong, R. A. and Otte, A. N. and Park, N. and Petrashyk, A. and Pichel, A. and Pohl, M. and Prado, R. R. and Pueschel, E. and Quinn, J. and Ragan, K. and Reynolds, P. T. and Richards, G. T. and Roache, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Rulten, C. and Sadeh, I. and Santander, M. and Sembroski, G. H. and Shahinyan, K. and Stevenson, B. and Sushch, I. and Tyler, J. and Vassiliev, V. V. and Wakely, S. P. and Weinstein, A. and Wells, R. M. and Wilcox, P. and Wilhelm, A. and Williams, D. A. and Zitzer, B. and Acciari, V. A. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Arbet Engels, A. and Baack, D. and Babić, A. and Banerjee, B. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bellizzi, L. and Bernardini, E. and Berti, A. and Besenrieder, J. and Bhattacharyya, W. and Bigongiari, C. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bonnoli, G. and Busetto, G. and Carosi, R. and Ceribella, G. and Chai, Y. and Cikota, S. and Colak, S. M. and Colin, U. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and D’Elia, V. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Lotto, B. and Delfino, M. and Delgado, J. and Di Pierro, F. and Do Souto Espiñera, E. and Dominis Prester, D. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Einecke, S. and Elsaesser, D. and Fallah Ramazani, V. and Fattorini, A. and Fernández-Barral, A. and Ferrara, G. and Fidalgo, D. and Foffano, L. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Fruck, C. and Galindo, D. and Gallozzi, S. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Gasparyan, S. and Gaug, M. and Godinović, N. and Green, D. and Guberman, D. and Hadasch, D. and Hahn, A. and Herrera, J. and Hoang, J. and Hrupec, D. and Inoue, S. and Ishio, K. and Iwamura, Y. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and Lamastra, A. and Lelas, D. and Leone, F. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and Longo, F. and López, M. and López-Coto, R. and López-Oramas, A. and Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B. and Maggio, C. and Majumdar, P. and Makariev, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Maneva, G. and Manganaro, M. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Masuda, S. and Mazin, D. and Miceli, D. and Minev, M. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Molina, E. and Moralejo, A. and Morcuende, D. and Moreno, V. and Moretti, E. and Munar-Adrover, P. and Neustroev, V. and Niedzwiecki, A. and Nievas Rosillo, M. and Nigro, C. and Nilsson, K. and Ninci, D. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Nogués, L. and Nöthe, M. and Paiano, S. and Palacio, J. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Peñil, P. and Peresano, M. and Persic, M. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Puljak, I. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Righi, C. and Rugliancich, A. and Saha, L. and Sahakyan, N. and Saito, T. and Satalecka, K. and Schweizer, T. and Sitarek, J. and Šnidarić, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Somero, A. and Stamerra, A. and Strom, D. and Strzys, M. and Sun, S. and Surić, T. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Teshima, M. and Torres-Albà, N. and Tsujimoto, S. and van Scherpenberg, J. and Vanzo, G. and Vazquez Acosta, M. and Vovk, I. and Will, M. and Zarić, D. and Aller, H. D. and Aller, M. F. and Carini, M. T. and Horan, D. and Jordan, B. and Jorstad, S. G. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Kurtanidze, S. O. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Larionov, V. M. and Larionova, E. G. and Madejski, G. and Marscher, A. P. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Moody, J. Ward and Morozova, D. A. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Raiteri, C. M. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Richards, J. L. and Sadun, A. C. and Sakamoto, T. and Sigua, L. A. and Smith, P. S. and Talvikki, H. and Tammi, J. and Tornikoski, M. and Troitsky, I. S. and Villata, M.},
abstractNote = {We report on variability and correlation studies using multiwavelength observations of the blazar Mrk 421 during the month of February, 2010 when an extraordinary flare reaching a level of ~27 Crab Units above 1 TeV was measured in very-highenergy (VHE) γ-rays with the VERITAS observatory. This is the highest flux state for Mrk 421 ever observed in VHE γ-rays. Data are analyzed from a coordinated campaign across multiple instruments including VHE γ-ray (VERITAS, MAGIC), high-energy (HE) γ-ray (Fermi-LAT), X-ray (Swift, RXTE, MAXI), optical (including the GASP-WEBT collaboration and polarization data) and radio (Mets¨ahovi, OVRO, UMRAO). Light curves are produced spanning multiple days before and after the peak of the VHE flare, including over several flare ‘decline’ epochs. The main flare statistics allow 2-minute time bins to be constructed in both the VHE and optical bands enabling a cross-correlation analysis that shows evidence for an optical lag of ~25–55 minutes, the first time-lagged correlation between these bands reported on such short timescales. Limits on the Doppler factor (δ & 33) and the size of the emission region (δ -1RB . 3.8 × 1013 cm) are obtained from the fast variability observed by VERITAS during the main flare. Analysis of 10-minute-binned VHE and X-ray data over the decline epochs shows an extraordinary range of behavior in the flux-flux relationship: from linear to quadratic to lack of correlation to anti-correlation. Taken together, these detailed observations of an unprecedented flare seen in Mrk 421 are difficult to explain by the classic single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 890,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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    • Acciari, V. A.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 248, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab89b5