skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Metal-embedded fiber optic sensor packaging and signal demodulation scheme towards high-frequency dynamic measurements in harsh environments

Abstract

Optical fiber-based sensors are commonly used for industrial monitoring and control processes due to their small size, resistance to electromagnetic interference, and ability to perform a wide variety of high-precision measurements. However, implementing optical fiber sensors in harsh environments is challenging because they are small and fragile. Proper packaging of fiber-optic sensors could extend their use to harsh environments, including at high temperature and under high radiation. Furthermore, conventional fiber optic-based measurement systems often use computationally expensive signal processing algorithms which hinder their use in high-frequency dynamic applications. This work reports on the design of an optical fiber-pressure sensor system based on low-coherence interferometry that uses a metal-embedded optical fiber to provide a robust sensor package. Additionally, a novel phase demodulation scheme is proposed to extract length changes from the deformation of a thin diaphragm within a Fabry–Pérot cavity to measure pressure. The sensor has been tested to ±100 kPa, has a theoretical linear response over a 270 kPa dynamic range (24 dB maximum signal-to-noise ratio), and can resolve pressure transients up to 3910 kPa/s. Sampling at 100 kHz, the present sensor can resolve 2 kPa dynamic pressures at frequencies up to 2 kHz. Faster transients on the order ofmore » tens to hundreds of kHz can theoretically be resolved at the expense of decreasing the maximum resolvable amplitude. A methodology for designing a LCI pressure sensor for a given application is outlined based on the limitations imposed by the Nyquist criterion, the diaphragm's resonant frequency, the LCI optoelectronics, and the phase demodulation scheme. The sensor is the first to implement a low-coherence light source and a Fabry–Pérot interferometer designed to provide real-time high-fidelity pressure measurements using a metal-embedded optical fiber. The demonstrated sensor provides a platform for sensing in harsh conditions such as in nuclear and energy applications.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1633156
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 312; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0924-4247
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Sweeney, Daniel C., Schrell, Adrian M., Liu, Yun, and Petrie, Christian M.. Metal-embedded fiber optic sensor packaging and signal demodulation scheme towards high-frequency dynamic measurements in harsh environments. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2020.112075.
Sweeney, Daniel C., Schrell, Adrian M., Liu, Yun, & Petrie, Christian M.. Metal-embedded fiber optic sensor packaging and signal demodulation scheme towards high-frequency dynamic measurements in harsh environments. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2020.112075
Sweeney, Daniel C., Schrell, Adrian M., Liu, Yun, and Petrie, Christian M.. Wed . "Metal-embedded fiber optic sensor packaging and signal demodulation scheme towards high-frequency dynamic measurements in harsh environments". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2020.112075. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1633156.
@article{osti_1633156,
title = {Metal-embedded fiber optic sensor packaging and signal demodulation scheme towards high-frequency dynamic measurements in harsh environments},
author = {Sweeney, Daniel C. and Schrell, Adrian M. and Liu, Yun and Petrie, Christian M.},
abstractNote = {Optical fiber-based sensors are commonly used for industrial monitoring and control processes due to their small size, resistance to electromagnetic interference, and ability to perform a wide variety of high-precision measurements. However, implementing optical fiber sensors in harsh environments is challenging because they are small and fragile. Proper packaging of fiber-optic sensors could extend their use to harsh environments, including at high temperature and under high radiation. Furthermore, conventional fiber optic-based measurement systems often use computationally expensive signal processing algorithms which hinder their use in high-frequency dynamic applications. This work reports on the design of an optical fiber-pressure sensor system based on low-coherence interferometry that uses a metal-embedded optical fiber to provide a robust sensor package. Additionally, a novel phase demodulation scheme is proposed to extract length changes from the deformation of a thin diaphragm within a Fabry–Pérot cavity to measure pressure. The sensor has been tested to ±100 kPa, has a theoretical linear response over a 270 kPa dynamic range (24 dB maximum signal-to-noise ratio), and can resolve pressure transients up to 3910 kPa/s. Sampling at 100 kHz, the present sensor can resolve 2 kPa dynamic pressures at frequencies up to 2 kHz. Faster transients on the order of tens to hundreds of kHz can theoretically be resolved at the expense of decreasing the maximum resolvable amplitude. A methodology for designing a LCI pressure sensor for a given application is outlined based on the limitations imposed by the Nyquist criterion, the diaphragm's resonant frequency, the LCI optoelectronics, and the phase demodulation scheme. The sensor is the first to implement a low-coherence light source and a Fabry–Pérot interferometer designed to provide real-time high-fidelity pressure measurements using a metal-embedded optical fiber. The demonstrated sensor provides a platform for sensing in harsh conditions such as in nuclear and energy applications.},
doi = {10.1016/j.sna.2020.112075},
journal = {Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical},
number = C,
volume = 312,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Fiber Optic Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring
journal, February 2011

  • Lopez-Higuera, José Miguel; Rodriguez Cobo, Luis; Quintela Incera, Antonio
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2011.2106479

Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering
journal, September 2004


Molten Fluorides as Power Reactor Fuels
journal, November 1957

  • Briant, R. C.; Weinberg, Alvin M.
  • Nuclear Science and Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.13182/NSE57-A35494

Achievement of Reactor-Outlet Coolant Temperature of 950°C in HTTR
journal, December 2004

  • Fujikawa, Seigo; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Nakazawa, Toshio
  • Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vol. 41, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1080/18811248.2004.9726354

The Status of the US High-Temperature Gas Reactors
journal, March 2016


Design aspects of the Chinese modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTR-PM
journal, March 2006


Molten-Salt-Cooled Advanced High-Temperature Reactor for Production of Hydrogen and Electricity
journal, December 2003

  • Forsberg, Charles W.; Peterson, Per F.; Pickard, Paul S.
  • Nuclear Technology, Vol. 144, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.13182/NT03-1

Preliminary Safety Analysis on Depressurization Accident without Scram of a Molten Salt Reactor
journal, July 2006


On-line monitoring applications in nuclear power plants
journal, March 2011


Detection of pump cavitation by vibration signature
journal, November 2015


Performance of a fiber-optic temperature sensor from −200 to 1050°C
journal, January 1988

  • Lee, C. E.; Atkins, R. A.; Taylor, H. F.
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.13.001038

Evaluation of the Performance of Distributed Temperature Measurements With Single-Mode Fiber Using Rayleigh Backscatter up to 1000$^{\circ}{\rm C}$
journal, January 2014


Devitrification in annealed optical fiber
journal, May 1997

  • Rose, A. H.
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/50.580819

High-dose temperature-dependent neutron irradiation effects on the optical transmission and dimensional stability of amorphous fused silica
journal, December 2019


In Situ Thermally Induced Attenuation in Sapphire Optical Fibers Heated to 1400°C
journal, October 2014

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 98, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.13289

High‐temperature effects on the light transmission through sapphire optical fiber
journal, March 2018

  • Wilson, Brandon A.; Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 101, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.15515

Radiation Effects on Silica-Based Optical Fibers: Recent Advances and Future Challenges
journal, June 2013

  • Girard, S.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Gusarov, A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 60, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2012.2235464

Sapphire Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Made Using Femtosecond Laser Radiation for Ultrahigh Temperature Applications
journal, November 2004

  • Grobnic, D.; Mihailov, S. J.; Smelser, C. W.
  • IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 16, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2004.834920

In situ reactor radiation-induced attenuation in sapphire optical fibers heated up to 1000 °C
journal, January 2015

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 342
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.09.014

In-Situ Reactor Radiation-Induced Attenuation in Sapphire Optical Fibers
journal, September 2014

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Windl, Wolfgang; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 97, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.13211

Reactor radiation-induced attenuation in fused silica optical fibers heated up to 1000 °C
journal, February 2015


Two Dimensional Displacement Sensor Using Fiber Bragg Gratings Embedded in a Cylindrical Metal Cantilever
journal, December 2016

  • Kim, Kwang Taek; Kim, Dea Hyun; Lee, Byeong Ha
  • Sensor Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1166/sl.2016.3706

Strain Measurement in the Spallation Target Using High-Radiation-Tolerant Fiber Sensors
journal, May 2018


Metal-embedded fiber-optic Fabry–Perot sensors
journal, January 1991

  • Lee, C. E.; Gibler, W. N.; Atkins, R. A.
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 16, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.16.001990

Integrating Fiber Fabry-Perot Cavity Sensor Into 3-D Printed Metal Components for Extreme High-Temperature Monitoring Applications
journal, July 2017


Method for embedding optical fibers in an aluminum matrix by ultrasonic consolidation
journal, January 2005


Ultrasonic embedding of nickel-coated fiber Bragg grating in aluminum and associated sensing characteristics
journal, January 2012


Solid-state additive manufacturing for metallized optical fiber integration
journal, September 2015


Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
journal, December 2017


Embedded metallized optical fibers for high temperature applications
journal, April 2019

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Sridharan, Niyanth; Subramanian, Mohan
  • Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 28, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-665X/ab0b4e

High-temperature strain monitoring of stainless steel using fiber optics embedded in ultrasonically consolidated nickel layers
journal, July 2019

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Sridharan, Niyanth; Hehr, Adam
  • Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 28, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-665X/ab2a27

On the Application of Interference Phenomena to the Solution of Various Problems of Spectroscopy and Metrology
journal, February 1899

  • Perot, A.; Fabry, Charles
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 9
  • DOI: 10.1086/140557

Fibre Optic Sensors
journal, December 1986

  • Jackson, D. A.; Jones, J. D. C.
  • Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1080/713821914

Quadrature phase-stabilized three-wavelength interrogation of a fiber-optic Fabry–Perot acoustic sensor
journal, January 2019

  • Liu, Qiang; Jing, Zhenguo; Liu, Yueying
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.44.005402

Sapphire-fiber-based white-light interferometric sensor for high-temperature measurements
journal, January 2005

  • Zhu, Yizheng; Huang, Zhengyu; Shen, Fabin
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.30.000711

Fiber-optic sensing of pressure and temperature
journal, January 1979


Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor
journal, August 2003

  • Mehta, A.; Mohammed, W.; Johnson, E. G.
  • IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 15, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2003.815338

Force microscope using a fiber‐optic displacement sensor
journal, November 1988

  • Rugar, D.; Mamin, H. J.; Erlandsson, R.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 59, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1139958

Fiber-optic pressure sensors for internal combustion engines
journal, January 1994

  • Atkins, R. A.; Gardner, J. H.; Gibler, W. N.
  • Applied Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1364/AO.33.001315

Interferometric fiber-optic sensor embedded in a spark plug for in-cylinder pressure measurement in engines
journal, January 2003

  • Bae, Taehan; Atkins, Robert A.; Taylor, Henry F.
  • Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1364/AO.42.001003

An improved fiber optic pressure and temperature sensor for downhole application
journal, February 2009


Quadrature phase-shifted optical demodulator for low-coherence fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors
journal, January 2019


All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor
journal, January 2006

  • Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Zhu, Yizheng
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 31, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.31.000885

High-speed FM demodulator of a homodyne laser interferometer for measuring mechanical vibration
journal, June 2004


Real-time single analog output for quadrature phase interferometry
journal, February 2017


Cross-comparison of fast reactor concepts with various coolants
journal, December 2009