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Title: Carbon-loud SDSS BOSS type II quasars at z > 2: high-density gas or secondary production of carbon?

Abstract

ABSTRACT We study the ultraviolet (UV) emission-line ratios of a sample of 145 type II quasars (QSO2s) from Sloan Digital Sky Survey iii Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and compare against a grid of active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization models with a range in gas density, gas chemical abundances, and ionization parameter. Most of the quasars are ‘carbon-loud’, with C  iv/He ii ratios that are unusually high for the narrow-line region, implying higher than expected gas density (>106 cm−3) and/or significantly supersolar-relative carbon abundance. We also find that solar or supersolar nitrogen abundance and metallicity are required in the majority of our sample, with potentially significant variation between objects. Compared to radio galaxies at similar redshifts (HzRGs; z > 2), the QSO2s are offset to higher N  v/He ii, C  iv/He ii, and C iii]/He ii, suggesting systematically higher gas density and/or systematically higher C and N abundances. We find no evidence for a systematic difference in the N/C abundance ratio between the two types of objects. Scatter in the N  iv]/C  iv ratio implies a significant scatter in the N/C abundance ratio among the QSO2s and HzRGs, consistent with differences in the chemical enrichment histories between objects. Interestingly, we find that adopting secondary behaviour for both N and C alleviatesmore » the long-standing ‘N  iv] problem’. A subset of the QSO2s and HzRGs also appear to be ‘silicon-loud’, with Si iii] relative fluxes suggesting Si/C and Si/O are an order of magnitude above their solar values. Finally, we propose new UV-line criteria to select genuine QSO2s with low-density narrow-line regions.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences , Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, P-4150-762 Porto, Portugal, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, R. Campo Alegre 687, P-4169-007 Porto, Portugal
  2. Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences , Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, P-4150-762 Porto, Portugal
  3. Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences , Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, P-4150-762 Porto, Portugal, Centre for Space Research, North West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1632994
Grant/Contract Number:  
SFRH/BPD/107919/2015; DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0002; DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0010; PTDC/FIS-AST/3214/2012; UID/FIS/04434/2013
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 495 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Silva, M., Humphrey, A., Lagos, P., and Morais, S. G. Carbon-loud SDSS BOSS type II quasars at z > 2: high-density gas or secondary production of carbon?. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa1409.
Silva, M., Humphrey, A., Lagos, P., & Morais, S. G. Carbon-loud SDSS BOSS type II quasars at z > 2: high-density gas or secondary production of carbon?. United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1409
Silva, M., Humphrey, A., Lagos, P., and Morais, S. G. Tue . "Carbon-loud SDSS BOSS type II quasars at z > 2: high-density gas or secondary production of carbon?". United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1409.
@article{osti_1632994,
title = {Carbon-loud SDSS BOSS type II quasars at z > 2: high-density gas or secondary production of carbon?},
author = {Silva, M. and Humphrey, A. and Lagos, P. and Morais, S. G.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We study the ultraviolet (UV) emission-line ratios of a sample of 145 type II quasars (QSO2s) from Sloan Digital Sky Survey iii Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and compare against a grid of active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization models with a range in gas density, gas chemical abundances, and ionization parameter. Most of the quasars are ‘carbon-loud’, with C  iv/He ii ratios that are unusually high for the narrow-line region, implying higher than expected gas density (>106 cm−3) and/or significantly supersolar-relative carbon abundance. We also find that solar or supersolar nitrogen abundance and metallicity are required in the majority of our sample, with potentially significant variation between objects. Compared to radio galaxies at similar redshifts (HzRGs; z > 2), the QSO2s are offset to higher N  v/He ii, C  iv/He ii, and C iii]/He ii, suggesting systematically higher gas density and/or systematically higher C and N abundances. We find no evidence for a systematic difference in the N/C abundance ratio between the two types of objects. Scatter in the N  iv]/C  iv ratio implies a significant scatter in the N/C abundance ratio among the QSO2s and HzRGs, consistent with differences in the chemical enrichment histories between objects. Interestingly, we find that adopting secondary behaviour for both N and C alleviates the long-standing ‘N  iv] problem’. A subset of the QSO2s and HzRGs also appear to be ‘silicon-loud’, with Si iii] relative fluxes suggesting Si/C and Si/O are an order of magnitude above their solar values. Finally, we propose new UV-line criteria to select genuine QSO2s with low-density narrow-line regions.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/staa1409},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 495,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1409

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