skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on May 26, 2021

Title: Experimental Passive-State Preparation for Continuous-Variable Quantum Communications

Abstract

In the Gaussian-modulated coherent state quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol, the sender first generates Gaussian-distributed random numbers and then encodes them on weak laser pulses actively by performing amplitude and phase modulations. Recently, an equivalent passive QKD scheme has been proposed by exploring the intrinsic field fluctuations of a thermal source [B. Qi, P. G. Evans, and W. P. Grice, Phys. Rev. A 97, 012317 (2018)]. This passive QKD scheme is especially appealing for chip-scale implementation since no active modulation is required. In this paper, we conduct an experimental study of the passively encoded QKD scheme using an off-the-shelf amplified spontaneous emission source operated in continuous-wave mode. Our results show that the excess noise introduced by the passive state preparation scheme can be effectively suppressed by applying optical attenuation and a secure key can be generated over metro-area distances.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity (OE)
OSTI Identifier:
1631241
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; Laser dynamics; Optical quantum information processing; Quantum communication; Quantum cryptography; Quantum fluctuations & noise; Quantum information processing with continuous variables; Quantum state engineering

Citation Formats

Qi, Bing, Gunther, Hyrum, Evans, Phil, Williams, Brian, Camacho, Ryan, and Peters, Nicholas. Experimental Passive-State Preparation for Continuous-Variable Quantum Communications. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.054065.
Qi, Bing, Gunther, Hyrum, Evans, Phil, Williams, Brian, Camacho, Ryan, & Peters, Nicholas. Experimental Passive-State Preparation for Continuous-Variable Quantum Communications. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.054065
Qi, Bing, Gunther, Hyrum, Evans, Phil, Williams, Brian, Camacho, Ryan, and Peters, Nicholas. Tue . "Experimental Passive-State Preparation for Continuous-Variable Quantum Communications". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.054065.
@article{osti_1631241,
title = {Experimental Passive-State Preparation for Continuous-Variable Quantum Communications},
author = {Qi, Bing and Gunther, Hyrum and Evans, Phil and Williams, Brian and Camacho, Ryan and Peters, Nicholas},
abstractNote = {In the Gaussian-modulated coherent state quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol, the sender first generates Gaussian-distributed random numbers and then encodes them on weak laser pulses actively by performing amplitude and phase modulations. Recently, an equivalent passive QKD scheme has been proposed by exploring the intrinsic field fluctuations of a thermal source [B. Qi, P. G. Evans, and W. P. Grice, Phys. Rev. A 97, 012317 (2018)]. This passive QKD scheme is especially appealing for chip-scale implementation since no active modulation is required. In this paper, we conduct an experimental study of the passively encoded QKD scheme using an off-the-shelf amplified spontaneous emission source operated in continuous-wave mode. Our results show that the excess noise introduced by the passive state preparation scheme can be effectively suppressed by applying optical attenuation and a secure key can be generated over metro-area distances.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.054065},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 5,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on May 26, 2021
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Continuous variable quantum cryptography
journal, December 1999


Distributing Secret Keys with Quantum Continuous Variables: Principle, Security and Implementations
journal, August 2015

  • Diamanti, Eleni; Leverrier, Anthony
  • Entropy, Vol. 17, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.3390/e17096072

Free-Space Quantum Signatures Using Heterodyne Measurements
journal, September 2016


Quantum key distribution over 25 km with an all-fiber continuous-variable system
journal, October 2007


Quantum random number generators
journal, February 2017


Passive state preparation in the Gaussian-modulated coherent-states quantum key distribution
journal, January 2018


Photon statistics of amplified spontaneous emission noise in a 10-Gbit/s optically preamplified direct-detection receiver
journal, January 1998

  • Wong, William S.; Haus, Hermann A.; Jiang, Leaf A.
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 23, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.23.001832

Practical challenges in quantum key distribution
journal, November 2016

  • Diamanti, Eleni; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qi, Bing
  • npj Quantum Information, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/npjqi.2016.25

Quantum cryptography with squeezed states
journal, January 2000


Quantum random number generation
journal, June 2016

  • Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu
  • npj Quantum Information, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/npjqi.2016.21

Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Gaussian Modulation-The Theory of Practical Implementations
journal, June 2018

  • Laudenbach, Fabian; Pacher, Christoph; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred
  • Advanced Quantum Technologies, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/qute.201800011

Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution
journal, April 2013

  • Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Leverrier, Anthony
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.63

True randomness from an incoherent source
journal, November 2017

  • Qi, Bing
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4986048

Self-Referenced Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Protocol
journal, October 2015


Experimental study on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state quantum key distribution over standard telecommunication fibers
journal, November 2007


Photon statistics of single-mode zeros and ones from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier measured by means of homodyne tomography
journal, October 2000

  • Voss, P.; Vasilyev, M.; Levandovsky, D.
  • IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1109/68.883823

Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network
journal, October 2010


Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
journal, January 2016

  • Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep19201

Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels
journal, April 2015


Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem
journal, August 1991


Quantum‐Mechanical Random‐Number Generator
journal, February 1970

  • Schmidt, Helmut
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 41, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1658698

Improvement of continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems by using optical preamplifiers
journal, May 2009

  • Fossier, S.; Diamanti, E.; Debuisschert, T.
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 42, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/42/11/114014

Quantum cryptography
journal, March 2002

  • Gisin, Nicolas; Ribordy, Grégoire; Tittel, Wolfgang
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 74, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.74.145

Secure quantum key distribution
journal, July 2014


Quantum Cryptography Without Switching
journal, October 2004


Quantum non-demolition measurements in optics
journal, December 1998

  • Grangier, Philippe; Levenson, Juan Ariel; Poizat, Jean-Philippe
  • Nature, Vol. 396, Issue 6711
  • DOI: 10.1038/25059

High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB
journal, January 2017


Characterization of quantum non-demolition measurements in optics
journal, January 1994


The security of practical quantum key distribution
journal, September 2009

  • Scarani, Valerio; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, Helle; Cerf, Nicolas J.
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 81, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.81.1301

High-speed continuous-variable quantum key distribution without sending a local oscillator
journal, January 2015


Quantum secret sharing using weak coherent states
journal, August 2019


Trusted Noise in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution: A Threat and a Defense
journal, January 2016


Continuous-variable QKD over 50 km commercial fiber
journal, May 2019

  • Zhang, Yichen; Li, Zhengyu; Chen, Ziyang
  • Quantum Science and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1088/2058-9565/ab19d1

An integrated silicon photonic chip platform for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
journal, August 2019


Passive-state preparation in continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
journal, June 2019

  • Bai, Dongyun; Huang, Peng; Ma, Hongxin
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 52, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6455/ab0b2a

Quantum key distribution using gaussian-modulated coherent states
journal, January 2003

  • Grosshans, Frédéric; Van Assche, Gilles; Wenger, Jérôme
  • Nature, Vol. 421, Issue 6920
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature01289

Wavelength division multiplexing of continuous variable quantum key distribution and 18.3 Tbit/s data channels
journal, January 2019

  • Eriksson, Tobias A.; Hirano, Takuya; Puttnam, Benjamin J.
  • Communications Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s42005-018-0105-5