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Title: Variations of the physical parameters of the blazar Mrk 421 based on analysis of the spectral energy distributions

Abstract

Abstract We report on the variations of the physical parameters of the jet observed in the blazar Mrk 421, and discuss the origin of X-ray flares in the jet, based on analysis of several spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The SEDs are modeled using the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, its parameters determined using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The lack of data at TeV energies means many of the parameters cannot be uniquely determined and are correlated. These are studied in detail. We find that the optimal solution can be uniquely determined only when we apply a constraint to one of four parameters: the magnetic field (B), the Doppler factor, the size of the emitting region, and the normalization factor of the electron energy distribution. We used 31 sets of SEDs from 2009 to 2014 with optical–UV data observed with UVOT/Swift and the Kanata telescope, X-ray data with XRT/Swift, and γ-ray data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The result of our SED analysis suggests that, in the X-ray faint state, the emission occurs in a relatively small area (∼1016 cm) with a relatively strong magnetic field (B ∼ 10−1 G). The X-ray bright state shows a tendency opposite to that of themore » faint state, that is, a large emitting area (∼1018 cm), probably downstream of the jet, and a weak magnetic field (B ∼ 10−3 G). The high X-ray flux was due to an increase in the maximum energy of electrons. On the other hand, the presence of two kinds of emitting areas implies that the one-zone model is unsuitable for reproducing at least part of the observed SEDs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  2. Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  3. Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan, Bisei Astronomical Observatory, 1723-70 Okura, Bisei, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411, Japan
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1630385
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan Journal Volume: 72 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6264
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
Japan
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Yamada, Yurika, Uemura, Makoto, Itoh, Ryosuke, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Ohno, Masanori, and Imazato, Fumiya. Variations of the physical parameters of the blazar Mrk 421 based on analysis of the spectral energy distributions. Japan: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1093/pasj/psaa028.
Yamada, Yurika, Uemura, Makoto, Itoh, Ryosuke, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Ohno, Masanori, & Imazato, Fumiya. Variations of the physical parameters of the blazar Mrk 421 based on analysis of the spectral energy distributions. Japan. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psaa028
Yamada, Yurika, Uemura, Makoto, Itoh, Ryosuke, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Ohno, Masanori, and Imazato, Fumiya. Thu . "Variations of the physical parameters of the blazar Mrk 421 based on analysis of the spectral energy distributions". Japan. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psaa028.
@article{osti_1630385,
title = {Variations of the physical parameters of the blazar Mrk 421 based on analysis of the spectral energy distributions},
author = {Yamada, Yurika and Uemura, Makoto and Itoh, Ryosuke and Fukazawa, Yasushi and Ohno, Masanori and Imazato, Fumiya},
abstractNote = {Abstract We report on the variations of the physical parameters of the jet observed in the blazar Mrk 421, and discuss the origin of X-ray flares in the jet, based on analysis of several spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The SEDs are modeled using the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, its parameters determined using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The lack of data at TeV energies means many of the parameters cannot be uniquely determined and are correlated. These are studied in detail. We find that the optimal solution can be uniquely determined only when we apply a constraint to one of four parameters: the magnetic field (B), the Doppler factor, the size of the emitting region, and the normalization factor of the electron energy distribution. We used 31 sets of SEDs from 2009 to 2014 with optical–UV data observed with UVOT/Swift and the Kanata telescope, X-ray data with XRT/Swift, and γ-ray data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The result of our SED analysis suggests that, in the X-ray faint state, the emission occurs in a relatively small area (∼1016 cm) with a relatively strong magnetic field (B ∼ 10−1 G). The X-ray bright state shows a tendency opposite to that of the faint state, that is, a large emitting area (∼1018 cm), probably downstream of the jet, and a weak magnetic field (B ∼ 10−3 G). The high X-ray flux was due to an increase in the maximum energy of electrons. On the other hand, the presence of two kinds of emitting areas implies that the one-zone model is unsuitable for reproducing at least part of the observed SEDs.},
doi = {10.1093/pasj/psaa028},
journal = {Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan},
number = 3,
volume = 72,
place = {Japan},
year = {2020},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psaa028

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