skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on May 21, 2021

Title: Compact and efficient elastocaloric heat pumps—Is there a path forward?

Abstract

Elastocaloric cooling holds promise for energy-efficient heat pumping near room temperature with low environmental impact. Its adoption is, however, impeded by disproportionally large sizes of actuators compared with the active material volume. Taking magnetocaloric cooling as the baseline, the value of no more than 10:1 actuator volume to active material volume should lead to both size- and cost-effective solutions that may potentially be competitive with vapor-compression devices. With the goal to establish performance metrics that can lead to informed actuator selection for specific regenerator requirements, we analyze a wide range of elastocaloric materials and actuator technologies to find the best matches. We find that actuation with magnetic shape memory alloys meets all requirements; however, this technology is currently in early developmental stages and such actuators are not widely commercially available. Another promising and easily accessible option is standard rotary electric motors in combination with rotary-to-linear transduction mechanisms. A theoretical analysis of two case studies of elastocaloric systems using rotary electric motors with a Scotch yoke mechanism demonstrates the usefulness of our approach. Actuator requirements are based on two different regenerator configurations: one starting from zero strain without any mechanical energy recovery and another with 2% pre-strain and mechanical energy recoverymore » to reduce the power and torque required from the motor. Our results indicate that the 10:1 target actuator to active material volume ratio can be met and feasibly lowered further, demonstrating that the proposed method for selecting actuators makes compact and efficient elastocaloric systems possible.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Ames Lab., and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1630107
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1630171
Report Number(s):
IS-J-10-196
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11358
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 127; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; Shape memory effect; Transducers; Environmental impacts; Thermoelasticity; Energy recovery; Smart materials; Mechanical energy; Electric motors

Citation Formats

Slaughter, Julie, Czernuszewicz, Agata, Griffith, Lucas, and Pecharsky, Vitalij. Compact and efficient elastocaloric heat pumps—Is there a path forward?. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1063/5.0003275.
Slaughter, Julie, Czernuszewicz, Agata, Griffith, Lucas, & Pecharsky, Vitalij. Compact and efficient elastocaloric heat pumps—Is there a path forward?. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0003275
Slaughter, Julie, Czernuszewicz, Agata, Griffith, Lucas, and Pecharsky, Vitalij. Thu . "Compact and efficient elastocaloric heat pumps—Is there a path forward?". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0003275.
@article{osti_1630107,
title = {Compact and efficient elastocaloric heat pumps—Is there a path forward?},
author = {Slaughter, Julie and Czernuszewicz, Agata and Griffith, Lucas and Pecharsky, Vitalij},
abstractNote = {Elastocaloric cooling holds promise for energy-efficient heat pumping near room temperature with low environmental impact. Its adoption is, however, impeded by disproportionally large sizes of actuators compared with the active material volume. Taking magnetocaloric cooling as the baseline, the value of no more than 10:1 actuator volume to active material volume should lead to both size- and cost-effective solutions that may potentially be competitive with vapor-compression devices. With the goal to establish performance metrics that can lead to informed actuator selection for specific regenerator requirements, we analyze a wide range of elastocaloric materials and actuator technologies to find the best matches. We find that actuation with magnetic shape memory alloys meets all requirements; however, this technology is currently in early developmental stages and such actuators are not widely commercially available. Another promising and easily accessible option is standard rotary electric motors in combination with rotary-to-linear transduction mechanisms. A theoretical analysis of two case studies of elastocaloric systems using rotary electric motors with a Scotch yoke mechanism demonstrates the usefulness of our approach. Actuator requirements are based on two different regenerator configurations: one starting from zero strain without any mechanical energy recovery and another with 2% pre-strain and mechanical energy recovery to reduce the power and torque required from the motor. Our results indicate that the 10:1 target actuator to active material volume ratio can be met and feasibly lowered further, demonstrating that the proposed method for selecting actuators makes compact and efficient elastocaloric systems possible.},
doi = {10.1063/5.0003275},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 19,
volume = 127,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on May 21, 2021
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A heat driven elastocaloric cooling system
journal, September 2019


Large entropy change associated with the elastocaloric effect in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Sb-Co magnetic shape memory alloys
journal, December 2014

  • Millán-Solsona, Rubén; Stern-Taulats, Enric; Vives, Eduard
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4904419

Multiple caloric effects in (Ba 0.865 Ca 0.135 Zr 0.1089 Ti 0.8811 Fe 0.01 )O 3 ferroelectric ceramic
journal, July 2015

  • Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4927558

Elastocaloric effect in a Co 50 Ni 20 Ga 30 single crystal
journal, January 2017


Ultra-low-field magneto-elastocaloric cooling in a multiferroic composite device
journal, October 2018


Colossal Elastocaloric Effect in Ferroelastic Ni-Mn-Ti Alloys
journal, June 2019


SMA foil-based elastocaloric cooling: from material behavior to device engineering
journal, September 2017

  • Bruederlin, F.; Ossmer, H.; Wendler, F.
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aa87a2

Piezoelectric linear motor concepts based on coupling of longitudinal vibrations
journal, December 2006


Significant elastocaloric effect in a Fe-31.2Pd (at. %) single crystal
journal, April 2013

  • Xiao, Fei; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4803168

High fatigue life and cooling efficiency of NiTi shape memory alloy under cyclic compression
journal, January 2019


Large temperature span and giant refrigerant capacity in elastocaloric Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys
journal, November 2013

  • Mañosa, Lluís; Jarque-Farnos, Segio; Vives, Eduard
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4832339

Demonstration of high efficiency elastocaloric cooling with large ΔT using NiTi wires
journal, August 2012

  • Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4746257

The selection of mechanical actuators based on performance indices
journal, October 1997

  • Huber, J. E.; Fleck, N. A.; Ashby, M. F.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 453, Issue 1965
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1997.0117

Giant Room-Temperature Elastocaloric Effect in Ferroelectric Ultrathin Films
journal, July 2014

  • Liu, Yang; Infante, Ingrid C.; Lou, Xiaojie
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401935

Magnetic Field-Induced Phase Transformation in NiMnCoIn Magnetic Shape-Memory Alloys-A New Actuation Mechanism with Large Work Output
journal, April 2009

  • Karaca, Haluk E.; Karaman, Ibrahim; Basaran, Burak
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801322

Design of a hydraulically driven compressive elastocaloric cooling system
journal, March 2016


Scotch-Yoke mechanism for a syringe pump - A case study
journal, September 2016


Elastocaloric effect in Ni 50 Fe 19 Ga 27 Co 4 single crystals
journal, September 2015


Design and Development of a High Pumping Frequency Piezoelectric-Hydraulic Hybrid Actuator
journal, March 2003

  • Sirohi, Jayant; Chopra, Inderjit
  • Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1177/1045389X03014003002

A review of elastocaloric cooling: Materials, cycles and system integrations
journal, April 2016


Exploring the efficiency potential for an active magnetic regenerator
journal, April 2016

  • Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Haffenden Bahl, Christian Robert
  • Science and Technology for the Built Environment, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1080/23744731.2016.1173495

Multicaloric effect in Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3-32PbTiO3 single crystals
journal, May 2015


Giant elastocaloric effect in directionally solidified Ni–Mn–In magnetic shape memory alloy
journal, August 2015


Elastocaloric effect in Ni45Mn36.4In13.6Co5 metamagnetic shape memory alloys under mechanical cycling
journal, June 2015


The evolution of magnetocaloric heat-pump devices
journal, April 2018

  • Zimm, Carl; Boeder, Andre; Mueller, Bryant
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 43, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2018.71

Low-force compressive and tensile actuation for elastocaloric heat pumps
journal, June 2020


Elastocaloric cooling potential of NiTi, Ni2FeGa, and CoNiAl
journal, September 2015


Thermodynamics cycle analysis and numerical modeling of thermoelastic cooling systems
journal, August 2015


Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression
journal, August 2016

  • Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 374, Issue 2074
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2015.0309

A review of the state of the art of solid-state caloric cooling processes at room-temperature before 2019
journal, October 2019


High cyclic stability of the elastocaloric effect in sputtered TiNiCu shape memory films
journal, August 2012

  • Bechtold, C.; Chluba, C.; Lima de Miranda, R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4748307

Shape-memory alloys: modelling and numerical simulations of the finite-strain superelastic behavior
journal, April 1997

  • Auricchio, Ferdinando; Taylor, Robert L.
  • Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 143, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0045-7825(96)01147-4

A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump
journal, September 2016


Scientific test setup for investigation of shape memory alloy based elastocaloric cooling processes
journal, June 2015


Translatory and Bending Micro Magnetostrictive Actuator using Iron–Gallium Alloys (Galfenol): A New Actuation Approach for Microrobots
journal, January 2010


Design of Scotch yoke mechanisms with improved driving dynamics
journal, August 2016

  • Arakelian, Vigen; Le Baron, Jean-Paul; Mkrtchyan, Manuk
  • Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part K: Journal of Multi-body Dynamics, Vol. 230, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1177/1464419315614431

Comparison of direct and indirect measurement of the elastocaloric effect in natural rubber
journal, January 2016

  • Xie, Zhongjian; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4940378