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Title: A new metal transfer process for van der Waals contacts to vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics

Abstract

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are promising candidates for ultrathin optoelectronic devices due to their high absorption coefficients and intrinsically passivated surfaces. To maintain these near-perfect surfaces, recent research has focused on fabricating contacts that limit Fermi-level pinning at the metal-semiconductor interface. Here, we develop a new, simple procedure for transferring metal contacts that does not require aligned lithography. Using this technique, we fabricate vertical Schottky-junction WS2 solar cells, with Ag and Au as asymmetric work function contacts. Under laser illumination, we observe rectifying behavior and open-circuit voltage above 500 mV in devices with transferred contacts, in contrast to resistive behavior and open-circuit voltage below 15 mV in devices with evaporated contacts. One-sun measurements and device simulation results indicate that this metal transfer process could enable high specific power vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics, and we anticipate that this technique will lead to advances for two-dimensional devices more broadly.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  2. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Photonics at Thermodynamic Limits (PTL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Science Foundation (NSF); Resnick Sustainability Institute
OSTI Identifier:
1626028
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0019140; 1745301; 1144469
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Science & Technology - Other Topics

Citation Formats

Went, Cora M., Wong, Joeson, Jahelka, Phillip R., Kelzenberg, Michael, Biswas, Souvik, Hunt, Matthew S., Carbone, Abigail, and Atwater, Harry A. A new metal transfer process for van der Waals contacts to vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax6061.
Went, Cora M., Wong, Joeson, Jahelka, Phillip R., Kelzenberg, Michael, Biswas, Souvik, Hunt, Matthew S., Carbone, Abigail, & Atwater, Harry A. A new metal transfer process for van der Waals contacts to vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics. United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax6061
Went, Cora M., Wong, Joeson, Jahelka, Phillip R., Kelzenberg, Michael, Biswas, Souvik, Hunt, Matthew S., Carbone, Abigail, and Atwater, Harry A. Fri . "A new metal transfer process for van der Waals contacts to vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics". United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax6061. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1626028.
@article{osti_1626028,
title = {A new metal transfer process for van der Waals contacts to vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics},
author = {Went, Cora M. and Wong, Joeson and Jahelka, Phillip R. and Kelzenberg, Michael and Biswas, Souvik and Hunt, Matthew S. and Carbone, Abigail and Atwater, Harry A.},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are promising candidates for ultrathin optoelectronic devices due to their high absorption coefficients and intrinsically passivated surfaces. To maintain these near-perfect surfaces, recent research has focused on fabricating contacts that limit Fermi-level pinning at the metal-semiconductor interface. Here, we develop a new, simple procedure for transferring metal contacts that does not require aligned lithography. Using this technique, we fabricate vertical Schottky-junction WS2 solar cells, with Ag and Au as asymmetric work function contacts. Under laser illumination, we observe rectifying behavior and open-circuit voltage above 500 mV in devices with transferred contacts, in contrast to resistive behavior and open-circuit voltage below 15 mV in devices with evaporated contacts. One-sun measurements and device simulation results indicate that this metal transfer process could enable high specific power vertical Schottky-junction transition metal dichalcogenide photovoltaics, and we anticipate that this technique will lead to advances for two-dimensional devices more broadly.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aax6061},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = 12,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Vertical Schottky-junction multilayer WS2 solar cells with transferred contacts. (A) Bottom: Schematic of device structure. Top contact is a transferred gold disk; bottom contact and back reflector is template-stripped silver. Top: 3D representation of multilayer WS2. W, blue spheres; S, gray spheres. (B) Cross-sectional image of metal-semiconductor interfacemore » captured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (C) Optical image of device. (D) Solar cell band diagram obtained from electrostatic simulations.« less

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The hot pick-up technique for batch assembly of van der Waals heterostructures
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Gold-Mediated Exfoliation of Ultralarge Optoelectronically-Perfect Monolayers
journal, March 2016

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Recombination Kinetics and Effects of Superacid Treatment in Sulfur- and Selenium-Based Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
journal, March 2016


Atomically Thin MoS 2 Narrowband and Broadband Light Superabsorbers
journal, July 2016


High Photovoltaic Quantum Efficiency in Ultrathin van der Waals Heterostructures
journal, June 2017


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journal, December 2007

  • Feng, Xue; Meitl, Matthew A.; Bowen, Audrey M.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 23, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1021/la701555n

Emerging Photoluminescence in Monolayer MoS2
journal, April 2010

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  • Nano Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 4, p. 1271-1275
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl903868w

The hot pick-up technique for batch assembly of van der Waals heterostructures
journal, June 2016

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  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11894

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journal, July 2015

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  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8509

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journal, October 2012

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  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 1, p. 20-24
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3443

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journal, May 2012


Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides
journal, April 2013

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text, January 2012


Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties of Few-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
text, January 2014


Picosecond photoresponse in van der Waals heterostructures
text, January 2015


Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes
text, January 2016


Via Method for Lithography Free Contact and Preservation of 2D Materials
text, January 2018


Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.